Groups of 'poor' readers have been found to show reduced amplitudes of accommodation, (1,4,5) reduced accommodative facility
, (4,5) reduced vergence amplitudes (1,5) and reduced near point of convergence, (4) and have poorer saccadic eye movements, (6,7) compared to control groups.
Researchers have suggested that various oculomotor factors may be related to the development, progression, and stabilization of myopia including poor accommodative response [2-8], decreased accommodative tonus , decreased accommodative amplitude , reduced accommodative facility
[11-13], increased accommodative adaptation , increased accommodative variability , near phoria , and AC/A ratio [8,17,18].
Ocular statuses, including accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility
, positive and negative relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A), distant and near phoria, and positive and negative fusional vergence, were measured.
Charman, "Dynamics of accommodative facility
in myopes," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Reduced accommodative facility
was not found, despite the laboratory-based measures that revealed slowed dynamics in the group with mTBI.
(30) Esotropia may be associated with hyperopia but, unlike in the general population, it is not uncommon to find a myope with an eso deviation, likely because of poor accommodative facility
. Important to note is that onset is later than in the general population averaging at 4.5 years.
Several authors [1, 4-10] refer to different clinical signs during visual examination: a moderate or high exophoria at near (greater than at distance vision), reduced positive fusional vergence (PFV) at near, reduced vergence facility at near with base-out prisms, a receded near point of convergence (NPC), a binocular accommodative facility
(BAF) reduced with +2.00 D, diminished MEM retinoscopy or low fused crossed cylinders, diminished negative relative accommodation (NRA), exofixation disparity at near vision, intermittent suppression at near vision, and even a limited stereopsis.
The near oculomotor functions assessed with both the conventional methods and COVS were Worth 4 Dot, lateral and vertical phorias, maximum negative fusional vergence (NFV) and positive fusional vergence (PFV) with its associated recovery measured with the von Graefe technique, fixation disparity tested with the Borish near point card (separate nonious lines through polarized lenses), monocular accommodative facility
measured with +2.00/-2.00 D lenses flippers, and saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements assessed by the Northeastern State University College of Optometry Oculomotor Test.
is a measurement of the eyes' ability to change focus from certain distances to another over the course of a minute.
In addition, the TBI cohort also exhibited a significant fatigue effect during accommodative facility
testing, which is atypical in the non-TBI population.
(5) Accommodative facility
is a measure of the patient's ability to focus easily from one distance to another.