Fibularis quartus muscle, an accessory muscle
, is estimated to be present in 7 % to 22 % of limbs (reviewed by Davda et al.).
in the forearm: a clinical and embryological approach, Anat Cell Biol 2011;44:160-163.
The precise PFM contraction assessment was devised by the investigators using a combination of the established methods described in the Introduction section of this article: observation of any accessory muscle
use, TPUS, and DRE using the following criteria.
This accessory muscle
may exist bilaterally; however a unilateral presentation of AFDL is more common .
Bentur modification is based on 4 parameters: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), wheezing, accessory muscle
It was remarkable that during 1L cycling with his AL, the pedalling action was very much "whole body", with a great degree of accessory muscle
involvement, whereas with the NL the cycling action looked normal.
Side muscle scars connect median muscle scars and they are in a similar position as accessory muscle
scars in some Ordovician bivalves considered as infaunal burrowers (Babinka, Coxiconchia or Praenucula) (Fig.
Current methods of accessory muscle
stimulation need to be studied further to improve SCI respiratory management, particularly together with diaphragmatic pacing.
While the patient had a good cough reflex, he had a paradoxical breathing pattern and substantial accessory muscle
use, concerning for diaphragmatic dysfunction.
The degree of accessory muscle
use was based on the degree of intercostals or sub costal retraction.
Diagnostic evaluations and treatments are done using the Pathway CTS 2000 (The Prometheus Group, Dover, New Hampshire, USA) and are performed to assess the physiologic and functional status of the pelvic floor and accessory muscle
Compression of the median nerve and brachial artery by accessory muscle
slips leading to clinical neurovasculopathy has been reported.