movement (moov'ment) [Fr. fr L. movere, to move]
1. The act of passing from place to place or changing position of the body or its parts.
2. Bowel movement.
accessory movementJoint play.
Voluntary movement of joints and muscles through their usual range of motion, accomplished without external assistance.
Cellular movement like that of an ameba. A protoplasmic pseudopod extends, and then the remaining cell contents flow into the pseudopod, which swells gradually. This type of movement allows cells such as leukocytes to move through very small openings. See: diapedesis
The change in the joint position between long bones. Flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction are examples of angular movement.
1. Synchronous correlation of two or more muscles or muscle groups that, although not essential for the performance of some function, normally accompany it, as the swinging of arms in normal walking. Associated movements are characteristically lost in cerebellar disease.
2. An involuntary movement in one limb accompanying a voluntary movement on the other side of the body.
Spontaneous, involuntary movement independent of external stimulation.
Movement of a tooth by natural or orthodontic forces so that the crown and root maintain their same vertical axis. See: rotational movement; tipping movement
Evacuation of feces from the gastrointestinal tract. The number of bowel movements varies in healthy individuals, some having a movement after each meal, others one in the morning and one at night, and still others only one in several days. Synonym: defecation
A persistent change in bowel habits should be investigated thoroughly because it may be a sign of cancer or inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract.
Bloody bowel movements may be caused by a variety of lesions in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tracts, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, dysentery, bleeding diverticuli, arteriovenous malformations, inflammatory bowel diseases (such as ulcerative colitis), or cancers. Black (melenic) bowel movements may result from bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract but may be mimicked by other conditions, e.g., the use of iron supplements or bismuth-containing medications. Clay-colored stools are often seen in biliary obstruction. Constipation with a decrease in the caliber of stools may indicate a malignant obstruction of the large intestine.
A history is obtained of the patient's usual bowel habits, and any change is documented. The patient is questioned and the stool is inspected for color, shape, odor, consistency, and other characteristics, as well as the presence of any unusual coatings or contents (mucus, blood, fat, parasites). Privacy is provided for the patient when using a bed pan, toilet, or bedside commode. The area should be ventilated or a deodorant spray used after the bowel movement to limit the patient's embarrassment and to reduce the discomfort of others sharing the area. The patient is taught the importance of fluid intake, diet, and activity to help prevent constipation, supportive therapies for diarrhea, and the importance of hand hygiene after toileting. The rationale for testing the stool for occult blood or other laboratory studies, if this is required, is explained.
The oscillatory movement of particles resulting from chance bombardment by other particles.
cardinal movements of labor
Changes in the position of the fetal head, occurring with a vertex presentation, as it descends through the birth canal and exits the mother's body. The cardinal movements are: engagement, descent, flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation and expulsion. See: Cardinal Movements at Birth - step 5
Rhythmic movement of the cilia of a ciliated cell or epithelium. Synonym: vibratile movement
1. A phenomenon appearing after injury to a corpus striatum, optic thalamus, or crus cerebri, and causing an odd circular gait.
2. In cardiac rhythm disturbances caused by re-entry, the conduction of electrical activity cyclically through tissue, a process that continues indefinitely as long as the tissue ahead of the electrical wave has adequate time to recover before the electrical stimulus reappears. The movement occurs because of a conduction block in one limb of a circuit, in which the electrical impulse is permitted to travel in only one direction.
decreased fetal movement
A mother's perception that her fetus is less active than usual. It may be monitored by assessing the number of fetal kicks in a specified time.
doll's eye movementOculocephalic reflex.
Muscular movements performed by the fetus in utero.
Movement of one surface over another without angular or rotatory movement, as well. This type of movement occurs in the temporomandibular joint after opening when the condyles and disks move forward, as in protrusion of the jaw.
Movement in a joint around a transverse axis, as occurs in the lower compartment of the temporomandibular joints at the beginning of jaw opening when the occluding teeth are separated or in the final stage of wide opening of the mouth.
independent living movement
Any of the societal programs that support a philosophy of full participation, self-reliance, and social inclusion of people with functional impairment. Emphasis on self-help, interdependence, environmental accessibility, freedom of choice, and programs to enable community living characterize this movement.
Movement of the mandible. See: gliding movement; hinge movement
One of the movements of the jaw that results in the cutting and grinding of food. It may involve unilateral chewing, alternating bilateral chewing according to the learned automatic pattern of activity, or consciously initiated movements.
The rotational, translational, and vibrational movement of molecules, primarily as a function of absolute temperature. The higher the temperature, the greater the movement, i.e., the greater the kinetic energy). See: brownian movement
Movement of teeth and bone produced by orthodontic appliances.
passive movementPassive motion.
Swaying movements of the intestines caused by rhythmic contractions of the longitudinal muscles of the walls of the intestines.
A movement normally executed by muscles under voluntary control (e.g., flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation). Synonym: physiological motion
physiological tooth movementMesial drift.
Motor activity requiring the planned and consciously directed involvement of the patient. It is hypothesized that evoking cortical involvement in movement patterns during sensorimotor rehabilitation will enhance the development of coordination and voluntary control.
rapid eye movement Abbreviation: REM
Cyclic movement of the closed eyes observed or recorded during sleep.
relaxed movementPassive exercise.
Any movement resulting from the contraction of respiratory muscles or occurring passively as a result of elasticity of the thoracic wall or lungs. See: compliance (1); expiration; inspiration; respiration
movement of restitutionrestitution (3)
Movement around an axis, as in hinge movement of the temporomandibular joint or rotation of a tooth around its longitudinal axis in tooth movement or extraction. See: bodily movement; tipping movement
Jerky movements of the eyes as they move from one point of fixation to another.
Movement of the intestine in which annular constrictions occur, dividing the intestine into ovoid segments.
Movement of a tooth crown while the root apex remains essentially stationary, resulting in an inclination of the axis of the tooth in one direction. See: bodily movement; rotational movement
The change in position of a tooth or teeth in the dental arch. This may be due to abnormal pressure from the tongue, pathological changes in tooth-supporting structures, malocclusion, missing teeth, or a therapeutic orthodontic procedure. Thumb sucking, if prolonged, may cause malocclusion and, eventually, displacement of teeth. See: pathological tooth migration; physiological tooth migration
Any movement in which physical objects, such as tools or utensils, are employed. Using a bottle-opener, carving a turkey, brushing the teeth, and drinking from a glass are all examples of transitive movement.
Movement occurring around an oblique axis in all three body planes.
The wormlike movements of peristalsis.
vibratile movementCiliary movement.