put forward the concept of lacrimal function unit (LFU), which consists of the main lacrimal gland, the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal glands
, and meibomian glands), and the interconnecting innervation.
The middle layer is the aqueous layer produced by the main lacrimal gland as well as accessory lacrimal glands
of Krause and Wolfring and is 7.0 m in thickness.
The accessory lacrimal glands of Krause and Wolfring are located in the region of the conjunctival fornices.
(1-3) Small populations of lymphocytes normally reside in the conjunctiva, particularly the conjunctival sacs and fornices, as well as in the main and accessory lacrimal glands. No lymph nodes exist in the ocular adnexa.
We can reasonably infer that, on one hand, the autoimmune disease can attack the lacrimal gland tissue via immune reaction to achieve the reduction of the tear secretion; on the other hand, the autoimmune disease can attack the ocular surface epithelial cells and promote the ocular surface inflammatory reaction to cause the damage of accessory lacrimal glands and goblet cells and promote the occurrence and growth of ocular surface inflammatory reactions and result in the damage of ocular surface epithelial cells and the reduction of mucin secretion.
This result implied the dry eye with insufficient tear secretion because of the autoimmune diseases involved in the ocular surface gland tissues such as lacrimal gland and accessory lacrimal gland, leading to the significant reduction or insufficiency of tear secretions [13-16].
Lesions visible through the conjunctival fornices should be differentiated from implantation epidermoid cysts secondary to surgery or trauma as well as dacryops of accessory lacrimal glands that are associated with conjunctivitis, especially trachoma .
Tawila et al., "Ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands: CT findings," American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.
The ocular surface consists of a continuous epithelial surface with regional specializations, including the surface and glandular epithelia of the cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, accessory lacrimal glands, and meibomian gland, which are connected by the overlying tear film (Figure 1).
Gene expression arrays using total RNA isolated from the human accessory lacrimal glands (also called Glands of Wolfring) which secrete directly onto the ocular surface collected from frozen sections of eyelids by laser microdissection identified 24 most highly expressed genes, many of which were of direct relevance to lacrimal function .