Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect. An now-obsolete trafficking protocol used in Ethernet networks, which allowed workstation devices to sense whether the network is free before they transmit data. CSMA/CD was used in shared media Ethernet variants (10BASE5, 10BASE2). Modern Ethernet networks no longer utilize CSMA/CD, but it is still supported for backwards compatibility.
Simply defined, bandwidth is how much data can be transferred during a set period of time over a particular access method. That starts to sound complex when described in terms of bits, bytes and bonded channels.
The All Access pageset includes a comprehensive vocabulary that can be easily adapted to any individual's communication ability with easy message on a page, efficient retrieval and editing of previously spoken messages, and a wizard to walk individuals through selecting an access method. The Navigator pageset is designed to support the needs of literate individuals who primarily want to use a keyboard to communicate.
Virtual concepts have since been used in many architectures and designs including: Virtual Address Extension (VAX); Virtual Circuit (VC); Virtual Machine (VM); MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage and became OS/390 and now is z/OS); Virtual Memory System (VMS); Virtual Private Network (VPN); Virtual Reality (VR); Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM); Virtual Storage Extended (VSE; was DOS/VSE); Virtual Tape Subsystem (VTS); and Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM).