The mutant UGT76E1T134A lost its activity with its donor sugar UDP glucose and acceptor molecule
kaempherol.When the reaction was done with UDP rhamnose as donor sugar and kaempherol as acceptor molecule
, it did not get any peak for rham-kaempherol, so there is no new activity with UDP rhamnose (Fig.
where E represents enzyme, RO-P p-nitro phenyl phosphate, E.RO-P Enzyme-substrate complex, E-P phosphoenzyme intermediate, ROH p-nitrophenol, A the acceptor molecule
and A-P phosphorylated acceptor.
For example, the primary electron acceptor molecule
for photosynthesis is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
For a dipole-dipole coupling mechanism, the rate of energy transfer w(r) between a donor and an acceptor molecule
depends on the inverse sixth power of their separation distance r.
This excited energy is then transferred to a nearby acceptor molecule
, and the donor returns to its ground state.
The Scripps Research Institute (La Jolla, CA) has patented a one-pot glycosylation reaction is disclosed in which a mannosyl (Man) group is enzymatically transferred to an acceptor molecule
. The starting glycoside is a mannosyl 1-phosphate that is enzymatically converted to its GDP derivative via UTP and a pyrophorylase.
The reactions catalyzed by these enzymes involve the transfer of a sulfuryl group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor molecule
to produce adenosine 3', 5'-diphosphate (PAP) and a sulfuric acid ester.
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)  involves the transfer of energy from a fluorescent donor molecule via a nonradiative dipole-dipole interaction to an acceptor molecule
The luminescence of a polymer is "quenched" once that polymer has transferred its electrons to the acceptor molecule
, which then is attached to the polymer.
When they also attached an acceptor molecule
to the other end, the luminescence vanished.
For years, scientists have been able to store light energy chemically using systems that utilize the ability of a donor molecule--one that becomes charged when exposed to light--to transfer its electric charge to an acceptor molecule
. However, these systems have a hard time preventing the wasteful "back electron transfer" reaction, whereby the acceptor molecule
simply passes its charge back to its donor and the stored energy is lost.
From there, the electron, instead of falling back and releasing its newly acquired energy, transfers to an acceptor molecule
; therefore, the donor loses an electron, and the acceptor gains one.