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While the percentage of Small Palms species is not different from the percentage in the overall species growth-form spectrum, Small acaulescent Palms are under-represented (P<0.001).
In particular, Medium-Sized Palms and Small Palms (P>0.01) and Small acaulescent Palms (P< 0.001) are less numerous than expected under the assumption of equal abundances per species (blue dots in Fig.
This subsection brings together solitary or caespitose, medium-sized to large, or subacaulescent, or acaulescent palms, all of them with large leaves (4--8 m long), and two slender species with leaves 2--3,5 m long and a stem up to 3-4 m in height and up to 15 cm in diameter.
These five species are small acaulescent palms with very short leaves (usually less than 1,5 m long).
Palms with a long, acaulescent establishment phase, and a long subcanopy to emergent reproductive phase, tend to have a U-shaped population structure due to the accumulation of juveniles and adults and the scarcity of subadults in phase of rapid trunk growth (Vallejo et al., 2004).
weberbaueri has been described as acaulescent, but recent observations of this species in Junin and Pasco (Peru) showed that although it actually begins to flower at an acaulescent stage, it eventually develops a short aerial trunk, obscured by persistent leaf bases.
Attalea plowmanii is very distinctive by its acaulescent habit, and has been later found in Colombia (Galeano and Bernal, 2002).
Low or acaulescent palms offer the best conditions for management, as their harvest does not require great effort or special tools, and thus, damage to palms is minimized, requiring only regulation of harvest volumes and times for guaranteeing sustainability.
Herbs perennial or subshrubs, caulescent or acaulescent, base of the stem with a tuft of rust-colored woolly hairs.
Herbs annual or perennial, caulescent to acaulescent and scapose, woolly to silky.
Stems acaulescent, flask shaped, wholly subterranean, ca.
obliqua are arborescent, in contrast to the acaulescent stems of Z.
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