* The absolute threshold which is the minimum stimulus intensity perceived by 50% of subjects is ideally regarded as the stimulus threshold.
If 50% and more than 75% of subjects have the same perception magnitude to the same intensities, they are considered as the absolute threshold and the just noticeable intensity, respectively.
* [x.sub.0] is either absolute threshold or just noticeable intensity.
If [x.sub.0] is equal to the absolute threshold, the stimulus threshold is ideally determined as: [X.sub.threshold] = [x.sub.0].
If [x.sub.0] is recognized as the just noticeable intensity, then, the absolute threshold is need to be determined.
As mentioned in Subsection 4.2, to ensure that [x.sub.0] is the absolute threshold or the just noticeable intensity, the data point P ([x.sub.0], [y.sub.0]) must be crossed by at least 50% of regression curves.
For all cities, the range in impacts from using an absolute threshold shift was smaller than the range from using multiple GCMs and/or RCPs (Figure 2).
Electing to model adaptation with a 4[degrees]C absolute threshold shift for Milan would suggest that the least effect climate change will have on heat-related mortality is an additional 44 heat-related deaths (per 100,000) each year compared with the present day (Figure 2).
Absolute threshold shifts are a popular method for modeling adaptation in impact studies, but they have always been shifted by between 1[degrees]C and 4[degrees]C without being informed by epidemiological evidence of observed threshold shifts (Dessai 2003; Gosling et al.
Overall, we recommend that future impact studies model adaptation by absolute threshold shifts and reductions in ERF slope.