Absolute risk increases
included 3.8 events per 1,000 participant years for all cause mortality, 1.4 events per 1,000 participant years for ischaemic heart disease, and 6.6 events per 1,000 participant years for chronic kidney disease.
The risk of serious adverse events was significantly higher (absolute risk increase
=1.3%; number needed to harm [NNH]=78) in the pooled estimate as well as the rofecoxib study, but not in the celecoxib study.
Calcium channel blockers were associated with more nonfatal myocardial infarctions (RR=1.177; 95% CI, 1.011-1.370; absolute risk increase
[ARI]=0.5%; number needed to harm [NNH]=200) and total myocardial infarctions (RR=1.182; 95% CI, 1.036-1.349; ARI=0.6%; NNH=167) compared with betablockers or diuretics.
Calcium channel blockers provided more reduction in the risk of stroke than the older antihypertensive agents (absolute risk reduction [ARR]=13.5%, P <.03; number needed to treat [NNT]=7) but were associated with an increase in risk of fatal and nonfatal MI (absolute risk increase
[ARI]=19.2%, P <.01; number needed to harm [NNH]=5).
The absolute risk increase
in these trials was 4.7 per 1000, which translates to a number needed to harm of 213.
For adolescents, the NNH is 1 in 92 for use of antidepressants and 1 in 556 for depression diagnosis." Kritsotakis asks, "Do any of these absolute risk increases
counterweight the benefits from birth control?"