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1. the number of induced abortions per 1000 pregnancies that resulted in a live birth, stillbirth, or induced termination.
2. the number of terminations ×1000 ÷ the female population ages of between 15 and 44 years.
premature expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception; termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable.
complete expulsion of all the products of conception.
abortion within the first third of pregnancy.
epizootic bovine abortion
characterized by serious fetal disease followed by abortion. Endemic in California's coastal range and in the foothill region of the Sierra Nevada, USA. Necropsy findings in the fetus are diagnostic; they include profuse petechiation and severe granulomatous hepatitis. Cause appears to be a novel deltaproteobacterium closely related to members of the order Myxococcales. Transmitted by the tick, Ornithodoros coriaceus. Called also foothill abortion.
spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more successive pregnancies.
abortion in which parts of the products of conception are retained in the uterus.
abortion procured by the veterinarian to eliminate a misalliance, to reduce wastage in animals in a feedlot, to encourage commencement of lactation earlier than would otherwise occur. In cattle manipulation through the rectal wall is a possible way of destroying the viability of the fetus. Induction by the administration of prostaglandins or corticosteroids is more usual. See also pregnancy termination.
the common causes in the various species are:
Brucella abortus (brucellosis); Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (vibriosis); Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus; Leptospira pomona, L. hardjo (leptospirosis); Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis); Arcanobacterium pyogenes; Aspergillus, Absidia and Mucor spp. (fungal abortion); bovine virus diarrhea virus; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis herpesvirus; Chlamydophila abortus; a deltaproteobacterium (epizootic bovine abortion); Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), Neospora caninum.
sheep and goats
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (vibriosis); Campylobacter jejuni; Chlamydophila abortus (enzootic abortion of ewes); Listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis); Salmonella abortus-ovis; Brucella melitensis; Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis); Brucella ovis (limited occurrence); bluetongue virus; border disease.
Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus; Actinobacillus equuli, A. equisimilis; Rhodococcus equi; leptospirosis, most commonly the pomona serogroup and less frequently serovar grippotyphosa; equine herpesvirus (EHV1); equine viral arteritis (EVA); equine arteritis; Potomac horse fever; and in the USA the mare reproductive loss syndrome associated with ingestion of the Eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum.
Leptospira pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. canicola, L. icterohaemorrhagiae (leptospirosis); Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (erysipelas); porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus; parvovirus; porcine circovirus 2; Aujesky's disease; classical swine fever; and African swine fever.
dog and cat
Brucella canis, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus.
retention of a dead embryo or fetus for more than 1 to 2 weeks.
pine needle abortion
a late-term abortion with retained fetal membranes in cattle caused by ingestion of isocupressic acid in the needles of Pinus spp., commonly P. ponderosa, but also P. jeffryi, P. contorta and Juniperus scopulorum and J. communis. Nutrient deficiency and tree management practices may promote ingestion off the ground as cattle graze through while eating early growing spring grass.
number of abortions as a percentage of the cows in the herd which were diagnosed pregnant in early pregnancy; the target is <2% but rates commonly approach 8% in dairy cattle and 5% in beef cattle.
abortion associated with serious infection of the uterus leading to generalized infection.
abortion occurring naturally. See also spontaneous abortion.
a cluster of abortions occurring at about the same time or in rapid sequence within a group of pregnant females. See also equine viral abortion.
abortion induced by a veterinarian for medical or other health reasons.