abdominal compartment syndrome

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abdominal compartment syndrome

a constellation consisting of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal compromise produced by increased intraabdominal pressure from bleeding (intraabdominal or retroperitoneal), ileus, peritonitis, or insufflation.

abdominal compartment syndrome

A compression (compartment) syndrome that results when extravasated blood and other fluids cause an abrupt increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP; formally, abdominal hypertension); chronically increased IAP, due to ascites and morbid obesity, are compensated for by increased abdominal wall compliance. Acutely increased IAP develops in surgical, ICU and other critical patients.

Intraperitoneal causes
Traumatic or post-operative hemorrhage, bowel distension, visceral oedema and peritonitis, laparoscopic procedures.
Retroperitoneal causes
Pancreatitis, traumatic retroperitoneal or pelvic sepsis or bleeding, sepsis.

abdominal compartment syndrome

Abbreviation: ACS
An extreme increase in pressure within the abdominal cavity that disrupts the blood flow to vital organs. It can result from any condition that causes an accumulation of blood or fluid within the abdominal space or a decrease in size of the abdominal cavity, including abdominal or pelvic trauma, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, peritonitis, extensive abdominal packing, and postoperative edema of the gastrointestinal tract.


Clinical manifestations of ACS include hypoxemia, widened pulse pressure, and a decrease in cardiac output, urinary output, level of consciousness, and gastric pH. Intra-abdominal pressure is normally less than 5 mm Hg. Signs of organ dysfunction occur when the pressure reaches 15 to 20 mm Hg, as measured indirectly by measuring bladder pressure.


ACS is treated surgically. Patients require meticulous supportive care, e.g., of blood volume status, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and ventilation.

References in periodicals archive ?
One study concluded that the Bogota bag is a useful technique and is the preferred closure system to prevent or treat abdominal compartment syndrome.
A minimally invasive management for abdominal compartment syndrome in severe acute pancreatitis.
Lerner SM 2008 Review article: the abdominal compartment syndrome Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 28 377-384
Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation.
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome was first described in 1984 by Krohn et al.
Incidence and clinical pattern of the abdominal compartment syndrome after ''damage-control'' laparotomy in 311 patients with severe abdominal and/or pelvic trauma.
The suggestion that chronic abdominal compartment syndrome might cause many of the complications of obesity was first published 40 years ago, but there has been no discussion of this theory in the literature since then, Dr.
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have been highlighted as major causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Reducing large amount of abdominal viscera of giant hernial content to abdomen cavity may cause abdominal compartment syndrome which push the diaphragm towards thoracic cavity resulting in respiratory difficulty and compromised venous return leading to circulatory collapse.
The intra-abdominal volume is increased and the abdominal contents restored to their proper location without diaphragmatic elevation and abdominal compartment syndrome.
Objective: Laparostomy is a temporary measure to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome as well as allow repeated and ready access to abdomen for lavage.