But although the conditions are manifested by behaviors that appear to be polar opposites--substance avoidance (or abdiction, as some are beginning to call it) by the chemically IIII/ intolerant, and compulsive substance use by the addicted--there is evidence to suggest that, biologically, they may actually have much in common.
As she outlined in her presentation to the approximately 120 attendees, Miller postulates that the TILT mechanism can lead to either abdiction or addiction, with both behaviors intended to avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
The question of whether variant alleles of these genes give rise to the abdiction and addiction phenotypes is a primary target for investigation in the future.
Thus, although the outcomes of addiction and abdiction may be polar opposites, the underlying causes and mechanisms may prove to be very similar.
Analysts say kidnapping for ransom is a major source of fundraising for Pakistani Taliban, who are accused of several high profile abdictions
in Zhob, Pishin, Qila Saifullah, and Duki.