Lamina of larger leaves 16-26 cm long, 11-16 cm wide, broadly elliptical, broadly cuneate at base, rounded and apiculate or shallowly retuse at apex, adaxially glabrate at maturity except persistently loosely sericeous on midrib, abaxially
densely and persistently appressed-tomentose with the hairs sessile or short-stalked and the crosspiece ca.
6 cm, base oblique, apex acuminate, margin serrate, adaxially green, sericeous (5-10-celled trichomes) with sparse setulose, white unicellular trichomes, abaxially
green or reddish, red or deep purple in the apical 1/3 or 1/5 of the foliar area, sparsely sericeous and more dense on the main veins, 11 (rarely 7-14) veins on the larger side of the blade.
and is strongly narrowing abaxially
with a strongly backwardly arched posterior margin, lacking a spine or node.
Above the articulation, the epidermis is similar adaxially and abaxially
, and it is formed by isodiametrical cells; stomata were observed only in the abaxial surface (Figs.
4 cm); blade glabrate and with minute punctuations abaxially
Leaf from less than 1 m to 8 m long, pinnate, reduplicate; sheath, petiole and rachis covered with a dense indument, armed with large and small spines; petiole very short to long, adaxially channeled near the base, distally [+ or -]flattened or angled, abaxially
rounded; rachis usually much longer than the petiole, adaxially [+ or -]angled, abaxially
rounded; leaflets numerous, regularly arranged in one plane or grouped and oriented in several directions, single-fold or secondarily plicate, linear acute, adaxial face dark green and shiny, abaxial face usually with abundant white indument, rarely pilose, margins usually armed with short spines or bristles.
Characters that define this third and most complex clade are the abaxially
concave perianth (character 26), the monosymmetric limb (35), the fusion of the three perianth parts into one lobe (36), and the ventricidal (62), acropetal (63) capsule.
5) mm; when fresh, whitish; when dry, adaxially green (almost invisible) and abaxially
8 cm, base oblique, shorter side acute, larger side rounded, apex acuminate, margin dentate, adaxially green, reddishpilose (6-12-celled trichomes), abaxially
green, reddish-pilose (6-12-celled trichomes) more dense on the veins, 12-13 veins on the larger side of the blade; smaller leaf in a pair sessile, lanceolate, 1.
5 cm wide, elliptic, coriaceous, adaxially violaceous, abaxially
brown, ventricous, conspicuous; blades ca.
5 cm long; leaf blade coriaceous, greenish brown, olive or light brown, 3-veined from near base, adaxially glabrous or sparsely floccose in the proximal third and prominently reticulate-veined, densely yellow, ochre or yellowish-ochre lanuginose, apparently 3-veined abaxially
; young leaves adaxially with dense to sparser deciduous whitish hirsute trichomes, abaxially
densely orange to yellow lanuginose.
Leaves alternate; petiolate, the petioles clasping; blades narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, coriaceous, pinnately veined, margin entire, abaxially