The differential diagnosis of bullous lung disease includes tobacco smoking, intravenous drug use (methyphenidate, heroin, cocaine), marijuana and cocaine smoking, and a long list of diseases including a1-antitrypsin deficiency
, HIV infection, auto-immune and connective tissue disorders, bullous sarcoidosis, idiopathic giant bullous emphysema and neurofibromatosis.
Liver replacement for a1-antitrypsin deficiency. Surgery 1977;81:258-61.
Liver transplantation for advanced liver disease with a1-antitrypsin deficiency. N Engl J Med 1980;302:272-5.
Liver disease in a1-antitrypsin deficiency detected by screening of 200,000 infants.
Molecular basis of the liver and lung disease associated with the a1-antitrypsin deficiency allele Mmalton.
a1-Antitrypsin deficiency. Hepatology 1984;4:11S-4S.