TCA cycle was strongly disturbed since (iso)citrate, aconitate, a-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, and malate concentrations were increased, and fumarate and succinate concentrations were decreased in PAD (Figure 1(b)).
We therefore discarded metabolites influenced by confounding variables, and we found six candidates with statistically significant differences in concentration between the control group and PAD patients: 3-hydroxybutyrate, a-ketoglutarate, glutamate, glutamine, (iso)citrate, and succinate.
Cells were grown at 28[degrees]C with shaking at 175 rpm in liquid medium YPD containing 1% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% (w/v) glucose, and different concentrations (mM) of sodium salt of a-ketoglutarate
Glutamate can be converted into a-ketoglutarate
by activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) and thus be oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle [9-11].
In my 2004 report, I noted that a report published in Nature established succinate and a-ketoglutarate
as important signaling molecules.
The activities of hepatic mitochondrial enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICH) a-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase (KDH) succinate dehydrogenase (SH) malate dehydrogenase (MDH) NADPH dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were significantly decreased in CCl4- hepatotoxic rats and administration of corosolic acid brought back these parameters towards normal.
The GDH elevation in all tissues (Table I) also suggests the possibility of a need for a-ketoglutarate
in the Krebs cycle for the liberation of energy.
TET2, at locus 4q24, has three distinct variant forms from alternative splicing, each of which possesses 2-oxoglutarate- (2OG-) Fe(II) dependent oxygenase activity that is dependent on a-ketoglutarate
and [Fe.sup.2+] ion as cofactors [1, 2].
According to the detected genes for glucose metabolism, they elucidated the fungal carbohydrate metabolism pathway and postulated that the metabolites for Neocallimastix frontalis were acetate, ethanol, formate, lactate, succinate and a-ketoglutarate
, which was oxidized from oxaloacetate by aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase.
From the a-ketoglutarate
languishing in the melting pot,
Thiamine and its dependent enzymes, transketolase (TK), pyruvate dehydrogenase, a-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase and the branched chain a-ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase complex are involved in the maintenance of NADPH levels and carbohydrate metabolism in the cell8.
22.214.171.124) catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate (glu) to a-ketoglutarate