The 577x A-Actinin
3 Gene Polymorphism (ACTN3) and the Sport Performance
It is known that myosin mainly contributes to the tensile strength of the muscle, while a-actinin
and desmin are cytoskeletal proteins responsible for the maintenance of structural and mechanical integrity of actin filaments in the Z-disk .
Positive staining of cardiac markers sarcomeric a-actinin
and Nkx2.5 as well as the gap junction protein connexin 43 suggests uniform cardiomyocyte (CMs) development independent of tissue location.
After 24 h, very small percentages of the cells treated with the extract and chromatin-modifying agents reacted with a-actinin and myosin heavy chain (2.09% and 1.97%, respectively), while only 0.4% and 1.59% of the cells expressed cardiac troponin T and atrial natriuretic peptide (table 1).
After 10 days, the extract-treated cells were able to express a-actinin and myosin heavy chain, but not the other markers.
Anti-filamentous actin antibodies characterize autoimmune hepatitis type 1 where the binding domain of a-actinin
on actin was shown to be a predominant actin epitope .
Among the candidate genes studied the gene encoding a-actinin
3 (ACTN3) and the gene encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) have been shown to be promising in studies that have a focus on training responses (22).