Bogduk, "The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints
," Pain, vol.
Bogduk, "Cervical zygapophysial joint
pain maps," Pain Medicine, vol.
Bogduk, "Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints
: is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity?" Spine, vol.
Jull G, Bogduk N and Marsland A (1988): The accuracy of manual diagnosis for cervical zygapophysial joint
One of the commonly assessed and treated structures of the vertebral column is the zygapophysial joint
(Maitland et al 2001), and in the thoracic region these joints have recently been documented as a source of symptoms (Dreyfuss et al 1994, Manchikanti et al 2004, Wall et al 1999).
blocks in chronic low back pain a test of Revel's model as a screening test.
If I am palpating through all the tissues between the skin and the zygapophysial joint
, is the pain that I may be eliciting coming exclusively from this joint?
When conservative treatment fails, interventional pain management methods, including injection of local anesthetics and corticosteroid at the location of great occipital nerve (GON), intraarticular/medial branch corticosteroid injection (C2-3, C3-4 zygapophysial joints
, medial branches of the C3 and C4 dorsal rami), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), occipital nerve stimulation, epidural steroid injections, and surgical treatment are other options for the treatment of CH (5,6).
To summarize, the postures that imply the physiological lumbar lordosis decrease the pressure and the degenerative risk in the intervertebral disk, expose the ligaments to less pressure and, though they increase the loading on the zygapophysial joints
, they are not considered a danger for the spine.
Putti first defined left-right asymmetry of zygapophysial joints
as articular tropism in 1927 .
Hypomobile vertebral segments have been thought to result from "adhesions" within the zygapophysial joints
. (17) This hypomobility or aberrant joint motion is thought to be amenable to manipulation.