Significant improvements in IMN design arrived in the 1960s and 1970s when the Zickel nail
introduced a viable concept for cephallomedullary fixation.
Lehman, "Subtrochanteric femur fractures: A comparison of the zickel nail
, 95[degrees] blade plate, and interlocking nail," Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol.
: Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur fixation using the Zickel Nail
. : J Bone Joint Surg 1987; 69: 1032-1040.
Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur fixation using the Zickel Nail
. J Bone Joint Surg 1987;69(7):1032-40.
The use of Zickel nail meets some of these objections, but is difficult to insert and has its own complications, the fracture of the base of the greater trochanter, being the commonest.
Subtrochantric fracture of the femur; fixation using the Zickel Nail. J B J S (Am) 1987; 69-A; 1032-40.
Cephalomedullary nails were first introduced in the 1960s, highlighted by the development of the Zickel nail
Subtrochanteric femur fractures: a comparison of the Zickel nail
, 95-degree blade plate, and interlocking nail.
(4.) Sangeorzan BJ, Ryan JR, Salciccioli GG: Prophylactic femoral stabilization with the Zickel nail
by closed technique.
(18.) Wainer RA, Wright PH, Gilbert JA, Taylor DF: Biomechanics of Enders rods, compression screw and zickel nail
in fixation of stable subtrochanteric femur osteotomies.
(9.) Wainer RA, Wright PH, Gilbert JA, et al: Biomechanics of Ender rods, compression screw, and Zickel nail
in the fixation of stable subtrochanteric femur osteotomies.
The first IM implant to give consistently good results and a high union rate (greater than 90%) was the Zickel nail
. (11,49,50) Technical difficulties associated with the necessary wide exposure can cause complications in up to 10%.