(5) In addition, a high expression of CD38, 70 kDa zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70
), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and CD49d is predictive of poor prognosis.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) targets three different cellular receptors: the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR), zeta chain-associated 70 kDa protein (ZAP-70
), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I) [27, 28].
Owing to all these limitations, surrogate markers including CD38 and ZAP-70
, with the similar prognostic value as IgVH mutation status, are more widely used.
phosphorylates a number of downstream adaptors, including VAV1.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), as well as deficiencies in DNA ligase IV, ZAP-70
, Ca2+ channel, MHC I & II, STAT5b and DOCK8, are among the 22 different classes of CIDs described so far.
, is a tyrosine kinase that participates in early B-Cell differentiation.
As testing for IGHV mutation status is complex and expensive, ZAP-70
expression was reported to correlate with the expression of unmutated IGHV (11), (24), (25); however, the association between ZAP-70
and IGHV is not definitive.
Written and edited by experts in the field this volume includes 17 contributions covering ITAM-mediated signaling by the T-cell antigen receptor, ZAP-70
as an essential kinase in T-cell signaling, the coordination of receptor signaling in multiple hematopoietic cell lineages by the adapter protein SLP-76, an enigmatic tail of CD28 signaling, lipid signaling in T-cell development and function, the mediation of T-cell activation by actin meshworks, understanding the structure and function of the immunological synapse, and perspectives for computer modeling in the study of T-cell activation.
expression, as detected by immunohistochemistry on bone marrow biopsies from early-phase CLL patients, is a strong adverse prognostic factor.
Immunophenotypic evaluation by flow cytometry of fchain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70
) and CD38 may be used to predict the clinical course of CLL and is frequently part of standard diagnostic panels.
ITAMs and the subsequent pathways activated, such as the [zeta]-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70
) pathway, are essential for T-cell activation .
(9) Subsequently, several groups demonstrated a relationship for intracellular ZAP-70
protein expression with either germline lg[V.sub.H] or with disease progression.