NPY2R

(redirected from Y2 receptor)

NPY2R

A gene on chromosome 4q31 that encodes a receptor for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. NPY receptors mediate various biological actions, including stimulation of food intake, anxiolysis, modulation of circadian rhythm, pain transmission and control of pituitary hormone release.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the peripheral nervous system, NPY participates in the regulation of autonomic nervous function by mediating vasoconstriction and increasing peripheral vascular resistance.[11] In addition, NPY can regulate the release of neurotransmitters by acting on the Y2 receptor on the presynaptic membrane of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers, which may play a crucial role in HR regulation.[12] In the central nervous system, NPY is widely distributed in the cardiovascular regulation center.
Basic research showed that NPY could antagonize vagal bradycardia by stimulating presynaptic Y2 receptors on cardiac vagal nerve terminals and inhibit the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[12] Therefore, it can be speculated that the low plasma NPY levels in children with VVS may not antagonize the effect of the high vagal tone on HR, which leads to a relatively slow HR.
Accordingly, these results indicated that NPY could promote the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of SVZ neural precursor cells via Y1 receptor; although [Y2.sup.-/-] mice also had reduced proliferating precursor cells and neuroblasts in SVZ as [Y1.sup.-/-] mice, the exact effects of Y2 receptor in proliferation and differentiation of SVZ neural precursor cells were still unclear which may be mediated by Y2 receptor itself or by regulating Y1 receptor expression or by other mechanisms.
The Y1 receptor mRNA expression of BMCs cultured from [Y2.sup.-/-]mice was downregulated, which maybe a result from the lack of Y2 receptor signaling relieved the feedback inhibition on NPY release, and elevated NPY caused overstimulation of Y1 receptors and followed by desensitization and downregulation of Y1 receptor [57].
Kaji, "Variation in the 5;-flanking region of the neuropeptide Y2 receptor gene and metabolic parameters," Metabolism, vol.
PYY, a high affinity Y2 receptor agonist, represents a new class of obesity drugs.
NPY Y1 and Y2 receptors are produced by POMC neurons, and their activation leads to inhibition of firing activity (39).
Increased stimulation of NPYergic neurons leads to the activation of presynaptic Y2 receptors and has a reciprocal effect on Y1 receptors, and thus, has overall anxiogenic and depressant effects (44,45).
(6) suggested that an increase in the number of mesenchymal progenitors and altered Y1 receptor expression within bone cells in the absence of Y2 receptors are possible mechanisms for the increased bone mineralization in vivo and in vitro.
These findings demonstrate that in addition to its anticonvulsive effects on pre-synaptic Y2 receptors, NPY contributes to the oxidant-antioxidant balance [9, 28, 29].
"Our PYY analogs, we believe, have significant potential to treat obesity because they are smaller (making them easier to be absorbed nasally), are more stable in the bloodstream and have greater specificity for the Y2 receptors than the endogenous PYY(3-36) molecule.
It has been postulated that PYY (1-36) inhibits food intake by acting similarly to PYY (3-36) at Y2 receptors, but interestingly, it can also potently stimulate food intake through Y1 receptors (39).