isosorbide dinitrate

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isosorbide dinitrate

Angitak (UK), Apo-ISDN (CA), Cedocard (UK), Cedocard-SR (CA), Dilatrate-SR, Isochron, Isoket (UK), Isordil Titradose, Novo-Sorbide (CA), PMS-Isosorbide (CA), Soni-Slo SR, Sorbid

isosorbide mononitrate

Angeze (UK), Chemydur (UK), Cibral (UK), Cibral XL (UK), Dynamin (UK), Dynamin XL (UK), Elantan (UK), Elantan LA (UK), Imazin XL (UK), Imdur (UK), Imo LA (UK), Isib (UK), ISMO (UK), Isodur (UK), Ketanodur (UK), Modisal (UK), Monigen (UK), Monigen XL (UK), Monit (UK), Monit LS (UK), Monoket (UK), Monomax (UK), Monomax SR (UK), Monomax XL (UK), Monomil (UK), Monosorb (UK), Trangina (UK), Trangina XL (UK), Xismox (UK), Zemon (UK), Zemon XL (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Nitrate

Therapeutic class: Antianginal

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Promotes peripheral vasodilation and reduces preload and afterload, decreasing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing cardiac output. Also dilates coronary arteries, increasing blood flow and improving collateral circulation.

Availability

isosorbide dinitrate

Capsules: 40 mg

Capsules (extended-release): 40 mg

Tablets: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg

Tablets (chewable): 5 mg, 10 mg

Tablets (extended-release): 20 mg, 40 mg

Tablets (sublingual): 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg

isosorbide mononitrate

Tablets: 10 mg, 20 mg

Tablets (extended-release): 30 mg, 60 mg, 120 mg

Indications and dosages

Treatment and prophylaxis in situations likely to provoke acute angina pectoris

Adults: 2.5 to 5 mg S.L. May repeat dose q 5 to 10 minutes for a total of three doses in 15 to 30 minutes.

Prophylaxis of angina pectoris

Adults: 5 to 40 mg P.O. (dinitrate conventional tablets) two to three times daily. Or 5 to 20 mg (mononitrate conventional tablets) b.i.d. Or 30 to 60 mg (mononitrate extended-release tablets) once daily. After several days, dosage may be increased to 120 mg (given as single 120-mg tablet or two 60-mg tablets) once daily. Rarely, 240 mg/day (mononitrate extended-release tablets) may be needed.

Off-label uses

• Heart failure

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Severe anemia

• Acute myocardial infarction

• Angle-closure glaucoma

• Concurrent sildenafil therapy

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• head trauma, volume depletion

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Give oral form 30 minutes before or 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Make sure patient swallows tablets or capsules whole.

• Have patient wet S.L. tablet with saliva before placing it under tongue. To avoid tingling sensation, have him place tablet in buccal pouch.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, headache, apprehension, asthenia, syncope

CV: orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, paradoxical bradycardia, rebound hypertension

EENT: sublingual burning (with S.L. route)

GI: nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, abdominal pain

Skin: flushing

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aspirin: increased isosorbide blood level and effects

Beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, phenothiazines: additive hypotension

Dihydroergotamine: antagonism of dihydroergotamine effects

Sildenafil: severe and potentially fatal hypotension

Drug-diagnostic tests. Cholesterol: decreased level

Methemoglobin, urine vanillylmandelic acid: increased levels

Patient monitoring

• Monitor ECG and vital signs closely, especially blood pressure.

In suspected overdose, assess for signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure.

• Monitor arterial blood gas values and methemoglobin levels.

Patient teaching

• Teach patient to take oral drug 30 minutes before or 1 to 2 hours after a meal.

• Inform patient that drug may cause headache. Advise him to treat headache as usual and not to alter drug schedule. If headache persists, tell him to contact prescriber.

• Instruct patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness or light-headedness from sudden blood pressure decrease.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

i·so·sor·bide di·ni·trate

(ī'sō-sōr'bīd dī-nī'trāt),
A coronary vasodilator that acts via the formation of nitric oxide.

isosorbide dinitrate

(ī′sō-sôr′bīd′ dī-nī′trāt′)
n.
A vasodilator drug, C6H8N2O8, used to treat and prevent angina pectoris.

isosorbide dinitrate

[-sôr′bīd]
an antianginal agent. Its prototype is nitrogycerin.
indications It is prescribed as a coronary vasodilator in the treatment of angina pectoris and congestive heart failure and esophageal spasm caused by GI reflux.
contraindications Closed-angle glaucoma, known hypersensitivity to this drug, concurrent use of drugs for erectile dysfunction, narrow-angle glaucoma, head trauma, or severe anemia prohibits its use.
adverse effects The most serious effect is occasional marked hypotension. Flushing, headache, lightheadedness, and dizziness may also occur.

isosorbide dinitrate

Cardiology A venodilating nitrate used with hydralazine in CHF; ID ↓ cardiac filling pressure, ↑ exercise tolerance. See Nitrates.

isosorbide dinitrate

A drug used to prevent or relieve ANGINA PECTORIS and in to treat HEART FAILURE. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Angitak, Cedocard Retard, Isoket and Isotek Retard.