The main reservoir is the black rat (Rattus rattus), and 2 main flea species (Xenopsylla cheopis
, a cosmopolitan species, and Synopsyllus fonquerniei, an endemic species) are involved in transmission.
Both compounds have reported toxic effects against arthropods, including the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae); oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis
(Rothchild) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae); and deer tick nymphs, Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (Panella et al.
(8) The rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis
(Rothschild), has been considered the main vector.
The main vector is the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis
, although other arthropods, such as the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, have been implicated in the life cycle of R.
is the primary vector flea for Yersinia pestis.
He describes the enormous impact the Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis
record as natural intermediate host of Hymenolepis diminuta in Lima, Peru
In the United States, it's the "rat flea" (Xenopsylla cheopis
) that is the most common vector of the Yersinia pestis bacteria.