To separate EDCs into distinct groups based on modes of action may not be possible as the mode may be dose-dependent for individual EDCs; for example, low doses of some xenoestrogens
may act by binding to estrogen receptors, whereas, at high doses, these same chemicals may bind to the receptors of other hormones (e.g., androgen or thyroid hormone receptors), through receptor cross-talk (Myers et al.
7 COMBAT XENOESTROGENS
These steps can minimise your exposure to them.
bisphenol A induces growth, differentiation, and c-fos gene expression in the female reproductive tract.
Low levels of BPA, however, act additively with xenoestrogen
and natural estrogens (Silva, Rajapakse, & Kortenkamp, 2002; Soto, Chung, & Sonnenschein, 1994; Soto, Fernandez, Luizzi, Oles Karasko, & Sonnenschein, 1997; Tollefesen, 2002).
In fact, a combination of tiny amounts of these xenoestrogens
is many times more harmful than any one of them alone.
"At Mama Mio, we don't include anything that's on the questionable list for pregnant women - parabens, petrochemicals, xenoestrogens
, phthalates SLS, and synthetic colours," explains Sian Sutherland, Mama Mio co-founder.
Snail populations that have been subjected to xenoestrogens
from contaminated effluent may then exhibit increased oviposition once factors such as heavy metal contamination, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentrations have been normalized.
Identification of Xenoestrogens
in Food Additives by an Integrated in Silico and in Vitro Approach Chemical Research in Toxicology, 22 (1), 52-63.
The importance of avoidance of xenoestrogens
from the environment, especially PCBs and dioxins found in plastics was also a common finding (Balch & Balch, 2000).
: These are foreign, often man- made substances that mimic the behaviour of estrogen in the body.