xenobiotic

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xenobiotic

 [ze″no-bi-ot´ik]
a chemical compound foreign to a given biological system. With respect to animals and humans, xenobiotics include drugs, drug metabolites, and environmental compounds such as pollutants that are not produced by the body. In the environment, xenobiotics include synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and industrial pollutants that would not be found in nature.

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik),
1. A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
2. Pertaining to association of two animal species, usually insects, in the absence of a dependency relationship, as opposed to parasitism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]

xenobiotic

(zĕn′ə-bī-ŏt′ĭk, zē′nə-)
adj.
Not a natural component of a particular organism or biological system. Used of chemical compounds.
n.
A xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik)
A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]

xenobiotic

a chemically synthesized compound that is found in the natural environment, but that does not normally occur in nature. Examples include pesticides, dyes, industrial pollutants. Such compounds may be structurally related to natural compounds and may be degraded slowly by the ENZYMES that degrade the natural counterparts. Others may be structurally unrelated to any known natural compound and their degradation occurs very slowly if at all. Xenobiotics generally persist in environments where microorganisms capable of their degradation do not naturally occur.

xen·o·bi·ot·ic

(zen'ō-bī-ot'ik)
Pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore foreign to an organism.
[xeno- + G. bios, life + -ic]
References in periodicals archive ?
The NQO1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, which confers protection against cancers, since this enzyme can stabilize p53 and, thus, assists the apoptosis, as well as the clonal expansion of malignant cells.
The microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and molecular oxygen-dependent FMOs catalyze the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including nucleophilic nitrogen-, sulfur-, phosphorous-, and seleniumheteroatoms.
CY3A4 is the most important drug or xenobiotic metabolising enzyme that plays a key role in the biotransformation of foreign compounds, which are introduced into the body for specific reasons [1].
Organisms encounter a large number of xenobiotics with potentially harmful consequences (Wei et al., 2000).
Chapter 1, Pharmacology, is a useful overview of xenobiotic absorption including routes of administration, rates of absorption, and factors affecting bioavailability.
Nociceptive elements are grouped under the voice of xenobiotic.The xenobiotic metabolism study is fundamental to a rational understanding of the pharmacology, toxicology research on cancer and addiction.
These phytochemicals are xenobiotics and are synthesized by tea plants such as Camellia sinensis and Camomilla recucita.
OBJECTIVE: We tested the utility of redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP)-based redox sensors for monitoring real-time intracellular redox changes induced by xenobiotics in toxicological studies.
As an example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are chemical carcinogens that belong to the group of xenobiotics which are able to initiate carcinogenesis in cells of various human tissues.
Researchers from the US and Europe address the role of nutrition in cancer biology; the molecular action of bioactive food components and xenobiotics on cancer risk; the role of dietary components in cancer prevention and treatment, including macro-constituents, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, fruits and vegetables, garlic, and herbs and spices; risks related to meats, fats, and alcohol; and nutrition education, with dietary recommendations that may reduce risk.
More xenobiotic compounds including the most recently "fancied" nanoparticles continue to find their way into the environmental milieu, increasing the accessibility of other xenobiotics into cells and their permeation through various blood organ barriers (BOB).