ER stress-mediated apoptosis is the third apoptosis signaling pathway that is independent of the membrane receptors or mitochondrial pathways, [sup],, and upregulated Grp78 and XBP-1
expression are regarded as ER stress markers.
Unfolded protein response signaling by transcription factor XBP-1
regulates ADAM10 and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.
2002 IRE1 couples endoplasmic reticulum load to secretory capacity by processing the XBP-1
Together, the findings suggest that either increasing p38 MAPK activity -- despite its being an inflammatory signal -- or increasing XBP-1
activity by other means could represent new therapeutic options for diabetes.
Hu et al  reported that XBP-1
, a key regulator of unfolded protein response, activates transcription of IGF1 in zebrafish embryonic cell line.
Instead of travelling to the cell nucleus and turning on genes called chaperones, necessary for proper ER function, XBP-1
Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in collaboration with MannKind Corporation (Nasdaq:MNKD) generated results confirming that targeting the unfolded protein response (UPR) through the XBP-1
pathway impacts the survival of myeloma cells, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma.
In several human carcinogenic cell lines, such as colonic carcinoma cell lines HT29  and COLO 201 , gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (SGC7901) , and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hepa1-6) , resveratrol causes ER stress with upregulation of GRP78 and CHOP and a proapoptosis effect with elevated levels of phosphorylated elF2[alpha] and XBP-1
IRE1 couples endoplasmic reticulum load to secretary capacity by processing the XBP-1
Results from nonclinical studies show that the IRE-1 compound inhibits growth of tumor cells by selectively targeting and inhibiting the key signaling process that regulates protein folding and facilitates cell death, known as the IRE-1 and XBP-1
(X-box binding protein-1) pathway.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress--induced IRE1a activation mediates cross-talk of GSK-3[beta] and XBP-1
to regulate inflammatory cytokine production," Journal of Immunology, vol.
5 h, PVDF membranes were probed overnight at 4[degrees]C with primary antibodies against cleaved caspase-3 (1: 800, CST, USA), Bcl-2 (1:1000, CST, USA), GRP78 (1:5000, Sigma, USA), CHOP (1:1000, CST, USA), caspase-12 (1:1000, Bioworld, USA), ATF-6 (1:500, Bioworld, USA), ATF-4 (1:500, Bioworld, USA), XBP-1
(1:1000, Bioworld, USA), eIF2[alpha] (1:500, Bioworld, USA), phospho-eIF2[alpha] (1:500, Bioworld, USA), and [beta]-actin (1:2000, Bioworld, USA).