X-ray crystallography

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Related to X-ray scattering: XRD

crystallography

 [kris″tah-log´rah-fe]
the science dealing with the study of crystals.
x-ray crystallography the determination of the three-dimensional structure of molecules by means of diffraction patterns produced by x-rays of crystals of the molecules.

X-ray crystallography

a powerful technique for determining the structure of crystalline substances by measuring the diffraction patterns produced when a beam of X-rays is passed through the crystal. X-ray crystallography has provided information on the 3-D structure of PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, DRUGS, HORMONES, VITAMINS and so on, from which atomic models can be built. Knowledge of the structure of such molecules has provided insight into how they function, and is useful in PROTEIN ENGINEERING.
References in periodicals archive ?
[3] Jones RL, Hu T, Lin EK, Wu WL, Kolb R, Casa DM, Bolton PJ, Barclay GG (2003) Small angle x-ray scattering for sub-100 nm pattern characterization.
It is long known that with X-ray scattering complementary information (to microscopy results) can be obtained in reciprocal space.
Compared to the previous multivoltage X-ray image decomposition model, the new decomposition model considers the influence of X-ray scattering. Scattering is an important factor that disturbs the accuracy of X-ray imaging.
For spraycoated films, the measurements were performed at the microand nanofocus X-ray scattering beamline (MiNaXS/P03) PETRA III (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany [39], The X-ray wavelength and sample-detector distance were 0.0957 nm and 163 mm, respectively.
If single crystals of sufficient size cannot be obtained, various other X-ray methods can be applied to obtain less detailed information; such methods include fiber diffraction, powder diffraction and (if the sample is not crystallized) small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).
The diameter measured by small angle X-ray scattering was 2.6 [+ or -] 0.2 nm, which is in agreement with TEM and PDF measurements.
Applications for the detectors include: X-ray powder diffraction and scattering techniques; residual stress measurements; thin film and texture analysis; PDF (Pair distribution function) analysis; X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements (WAXS) and grazing incidence small angle scattering (GISAXS); and dispersive fluorescence spectroscopy.
The authors of the study, published in PLOS Pathogens, were able to discover the switch from one conformation to the other by working out the 3D structure of the endolysins using X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering.
The award notes that "Thomson X-ray scattering is based on the interaction of electromagnetic waves, such as light, with free electrons, and is used to determine the properties of matter that has been heated and compressed to high temperatures and/or pressures, and is especially powerful in sensing the temperature of plasma--the high-temperature state of matter in which electrons and nuclei move independently of each other.
The first chapter introduces the basics of X-ray scattering theory in crystal systems.
Small Angle X-Ray Scattering. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were performed using the pinhole SAXS instrument at Nanolab company (KNL, Iran).