Jones RL, Hu T, Lin EK, Wu WL, Kolb R, Casa DM, Bolton PJ, Barclay GG (2003) Small angle x-ray scattering
for sub-100 nm pattern characterization.
It is long known that with X-ray scattering
complementary information (to microscopy results) can be obtained in reciprocal space.
Compared to the previous multivoltage X-ray image decomposition model, the new decomposition model considers the influence of X-ray scattering
. Scattering is an important factor that disturbs the accuracy of X-ray imaging.
For spraycoated films, the measurements were performed at the microand nanofocus X-ray scattering
beamline (MiNaXS/P03) PETRA III (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany , The X-ray wavelength and sample-detector distance were 0.0957 nm and 163 mm, respectively.
If single crystals of sufficient size cannot be obtained, various other X-ray methods can be applied to obtain less detailed information; such methods include fiber diffraction, powder diffraction and (if the sample is not crystallized) small-angle X-ray scattering
The diameter measured by small angle X-ray scattering
was 2.6 [+ or -] 0.2 nm, which is in agreement with TEM and PDF measurements.
Applications for the detectors include: X-ray powder diffraction and scattering techniques; residual stress measurements; thin film and texture analysis; PDF (Pair distribution function) analysis; X-ray scattering
(SAXS), wide-angle X-ray scattering
measurements (WAXS) and grazing incidence small angle scattering (GISAXS); and dispersive fluorescence spectroscopy.
Scientists can filter out the X-rays from this beam of light and use it to shine through crystals and measure the X-ray scattering
on a digital camera.
The authors of the study, published in PLOS Pathogens, were able to discover the switch from one conformation to the other by working out the 3D structure of the endolysins using X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering
The award notes that "Thomson X-ray scattering
is based on the interaction of electromagnetic waves, such as light, with free electrons, and is used to determine the properties of matter that has been heated and compressed to high temperatures and/or pressures, and is especially powerful in sensing the temperature of plasma--the high-temperature state of matter in which electrons and nuclei move independently of each other.
The first chapter introduces the basics of X-ray scattering
theory in crystal systems.
Small Angle X-Ray Scattering
. Small angle X-ray scattering
(SAXS) measurements were performed using the pinhole SAXS instrument at Nanolab company (KNL, Iran).