In dioecious dwarf surfclam Mulinia lateralis (Say, 1822), it has been also found that its gynogenetic progeny are all females indicating that they must be the homogametic sex (carrying 2X-chromosomes), and triploids showed both genders, males and females, such that it was proposed that they were XXX and XXY, with the Y-chromosome being dominant over the X-chromosome
. On the other hand, triploids from the protandric dioecious Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas are not affected in their sex, with the proportions of males and females being similar as those found with diploids (Allen & Downing 1990), and thus no sex chromosomes can be inferred to be present from their sex ratios.
Reactivation of inactivated X-chromosomes
is associated with cancer, ageing, and an increased risk of immune or autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (which mainly affects women), but the process is highly complex and also affected by developmental influences.
lncRNAs play a critical role in the regulation of imprinting, exemplified by the long intergenic RNA Air, and X-chromosome
inactivation by X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) (8, 17).
Evolutionary diversity and developmental regulation of X-chromosome
Parental origin of the X-chromosome
does not influence growth hormone treatment effect in Turner syndrome.
There is evidence of PLAC1 sequence in a number of other placental mammal genomes in ENSEMBL though these genomes are not yet complete enough for the X-chromosome
region in which the PLAC1 gene is located to be included here.
inactivation of the human TIMP1 gene.
As disruption of meiosis very frequently leads to increased nondisjunction and aneuploidy, it correlates with a "high incidence of males" phenotype (Him), which is due to errors in X-chromosome
Wiskott- Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a recessive genetic disorder linked to the X-chromosome
characterized by immune deficiency, eczema and thrombocytopenia.
Manchester University scientists believe they now know most of the disease-causing genes with the latest research identifying ones specific to the female X-chromosome
It is estimated that approximately 15 percent of patients have a defect that lies in the X-chromosome
. This is called X-linked "intellectual disability" (XLID).
abnormalities, including trisomy X, are also possible.