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There are three main types of mechanisms for wind dispersal: parachutes, helicopters (wings), and sails (e.g., Figure 1).
The possibility exists that a mucilaginous mericarp might adhere to a fallen leaf, which might then function like a wing for wind dispersal, but this mode of dispersal seems highly unlikely and certainly not typical of a species (van Rheede van Oudtshoorn & van Rooyen, 1999).
They argued that most potholes in the region lack aquatic connections, and that they are rarely visited by vertebrates (Graham reported seeing one shorebird at one pothole and great blue heron tracks in a different pothole in 18 years.) They concluded that wind dispersal is the most important mechanism of dispersal of brachiopod cysts in this region.
Mishler points out that wind dispersal works well for mosses, liverworts, and lichens because, unlike flowering plants and ferns, many can regenerate front small asexual structures or even tiny, broken-off pieces.
An alternative approach is to use a spatially explicit mechanistic model of wind dispersal, which has been validated for the same species and site.
Wind dispersal of fruits with variable seed number in a tropical tree (Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus: Leguminosae).
Consequently, pine seeds are vulnerable to seed predators after initial wind dispersal. In a study conducted near this study site, Vander Wall (1994) monitored the rate of removal of pine seeds lying on the ground surface by animals.
Double- and single-seeded fruits of Platypodium elegans: consequences for wind dispersal and seedling growth and survival.
Climatological factors are also important, since wind dispersal is also facilitated when the release of spores is coordinated with the times of day and the seasons that are most conducive to the release and capture of particulates, and when compatible conspecifics are closely spaced.
Our low-dispersal estimates for animal-dispersal taxa [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED] are consistent with lack of specialized structures for wind dispersal. The high-dispersal estimates we obtained for Liriodendron contrast with relatively rapid descent for these rolling samaras (Green 1980).
Attached apically is a 15-20 mm pappus which aids in wind dispersal. The species flowers between July and September, dispersing achenes from August throughout the autumn and winter (even over snow).
Pines of other species whose seeds are not harvested and planted by birds have seeds that are small and have wings that assist in wind dispersal. Not so with the pinon.