Georges F.I., French physician, 1862-1929. See: Widal reaction, Widal syndrome, Gruber-Widal reaction, Hayem-Widal syndrome.
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The conventional methods routinely used include detection of Salmonella typhi in blood, urine, stool, and bone marrow aspirate cultures and antibody detection by the Widal test.3 However, due to documented cases of false positive results in the past, Widal test is denoted as obsolete.
Widal test was done by adding 0.5 ml of Salmonella typhi O, Salmonella Typhi H, Salmonella paratyphi A(H) and Salmonella paratyphi B(H) antigens respectively in test tubes with diluted sera of 1:30.1:60, 1:120, 1:240 and 1:480 concentration and also control of 0.5 ml normal saline.
Any time my children had fever, they will be tested for Typhoid Fever using a Laboratory test called Widal Test which always confirmed that they have Typhoid Fever.
They advised the medical practitioners to send blood culture test to confirm diagnosis of the XDR-Typhoid and not recommend Widal or Typhidot to their patients.
Descriptive parameters of the children (N=7) Parameter Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Age and sex 11 years, F 14 years, F 7 mo, F Clinical features Fever, abdominal Fever, Fever pain abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypotension Hepatosplenomegaly Present Present Present Predisposing factors Malnutrition Malnutrition None Single/multiple Multiple Multiple Multiple abscesses Blood culture Burkholderia Sterile Sterile pseudomallei* Serology Negative Negative Negative (Widal, Weil-Felix, IgM scrub typhus) Abscess size 2 x 3 mm 21 x 15 mm 33 x 31 mm (maximum) Treatment IVA IVA IVA, USG- guided aspiration Leukocyte count, 19 500 15 000 19 000 cumm.
Half (50%) of the GP's used widal test and blood culture for confirmation of the typhoid followed by 32% GP's who confirmed typhoid through typhidot while 11% GP's used TLC and Widal test and only 7% GP's used blood culture and bone marrow culture for the confirmation of typhoid.
However, in developing countries, culture facilities are not easily available or accessible and serological tests such as Widal test remain the mainstay of diagnosis.
It describes the nature and identification of the etiological agent, Salmonella; two famous outbreaks (the Plague of Athens and the final illness and death of Alexander the Great); the deaths from typhoid fever of major figures in history; the roles of Thomas Willis, William Wood Gerhard, Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis, Robert Koch, Walter Reed, William Budd, and others; the diagnostic test developed by Fernand Widal and Albert GrEnbaum; the story of oTyphoid Maryo; the work of Almroth Wright and others in vaccination; typhoid in the American army; and typhoid in the 21st century.
During this period, all the patients who were admitted with clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were investigated for Widal test and blood culture.