sewage treatment

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sewage treatment

the treatment of raw sewage to make it harmless for discharge into rivers, seas and oceans. Treatment systems may involve
  1. (a) Primary treatment in which physical methods are used to remove solid matter (primary sludge) from the waste-water.
  2. (b) Secondary treatment in which biological methods, involving a range of aerobic bacteria, are used to degrade the organic matter in the waste-water. The treated sewage may then be disinfected before discharge from the sewage plant. The sludge that accumulates during both primary and secondary treatments is acted on by anaerobic bacteria in an anaerobic sludge digester. The methane produced can be used as a fuel for heating the digester, whilst the treated sludge is dried and may be used as a fertilizer.
  3. (c) Tertiary treatment in which chemical and physical methods are generally used to remove all the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen and phosphorus. After this treatment the water is disinfected and can be pumped direct into reservoirs. However, tertiary treatment is an expensive process, so water is often returned to the environment after secondary treatment.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It will be signing a MOU agreement with Harbin Wan Xing Long Co to explore acquiring a 50,000 cubic metres per daymunicipal wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 cubic metres per day water reclamation plant.
The Changi Water Reclamation Plant itself is a showcase of an effective water solution for cities, especially those that face water demand and pollution challenges.
The education center also offers student tours through the water reclamation plant.
Trade and Development Agency and the Inter-American Development Bank have both evaluated the Lock Water Reclamation System, and funded feasibility studies, which found that the technical concepts are feasible.
The study focused on the community of Xochimilco, in a water reclamation area on the outskirts of Mexico City.
The former water reclamation works at Crick, Northamptonshire, has been sold to Tesco Stores Ltd for extension of car parking and loading areas at their adjacent regional distribution centre.
Under the revision, the government would present its basic policy on reclamation, based on which it would listen to citizens and other third parties to decide on where public water reclamation projects should be allowed or restricted, the ministry officials said.
has teamed up with a unit of Japanese multinational conglomerate Toshiba to work on a P2-billion water reclamation engineering project for Maynilad Water Services Inc.
The Northshore Water Reclamation District in Gurnee hosted a group of Chinese engineers and managers from the Engineering Corporation of Water Environmental and Urban Infrastructure, a subsidiary of Chengdu Engineering Corporation.
M2 EQUITYBITES-July 19, 2016-Aegion wins contract valued at USD12.4m from Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago
Commissioner of the Bureau of Reclamation Estevan Lopez has confirmed plans to spend an additional $23 million in support of water reuse in efficiency in 2016, including $9 million for the Title XVI Water Reclamation and Reuse Program; $9 million for WaterSMART Grants; $5 million in support of water recycling as part of California's Central Valley Project; and, $2 million towards research and development.