The final model included teacher as a random effect, and fixed effects were pretests (both WP composite and WRAT
3 computations) and special education status (at L1) and cohort and treatment (at L2).
A volunteer-powered program, Reading STARS brings students who are learning to read up to grade level (based on the WRAT
Grade Score) in an average of 20 hours for kindergartners and first-graders, and 40 hours for second- and third-graders.
3 = arithmetic subtest from Wide Range Achieve-ment Test (Wilkinson, 1993); TORC = Test of Reading Comprehension (Brown, Hammill, & Weiderholt, 1995); WMC = working memory capacity; TOMA-2 = Test of Mathematical Abilities (Brown, Cronin, & McIntire, 1994); STAR = California Department of Education Standardized Testing and Reporting sample questions (2009).
was used to measure academic achievement prior to and after the 20 weeks.
The high antisocial group was significantly lower on the Arithmetic Scale of the WRAT
-- 3 than the low antisocial group (F = 6.
TABLE 3 Descriptive Characteristics of MD Groups Across Time Kindergarten Grade 2 MD- MD- TD Only MD+RD TD Only MD+RD Measure M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) WRAT
TABLE 1 Assessments Used to Determine Academic and Language Outcomes Domain Assessment Academic Reading WRAT WRAT
3 Arithmetic WRAT WRAT
3 Spelling WRAT
3 Reading comprehension PIAT Language Overall language TACL-R WISC-III (Verbal Comprehension Index), WISC-IIIUK Expressive language EOWPVT McCarthy Verbal Scale (McCarthy, 1972) Renfrew Bus Story Test (Renfrew, 1995) SICD-R Verbal Fluency Test (McCarthy, 1972) Receptive language PPVTR SICD-R Language pragmatics Elicited verbal narratives were coded for amount of language, amount of information, organization of information, and global semantic interpretation (Chapman et al.
1998) their SE for Spelling and Digit Span; were accurate for Reading, all Performance subtests, and 3 of 5 Verbal subtests; and overest, for Information and WRAT
arithmetic Author Self-Efficacy Ratings Alvarez & Adelman Mean global math efficacy (1986) ratings were 8.
Identification, Word Attack, Passage Comprehension; GORT III Rate Uhry & Shepherd WPPSI-R or WISC-III WRMT-R Word Full Scale IQ Identification, Word Attack Vadasy, Jenkins, PPVT R WRAT
R Reading Antil, Wayne, & O'Connor Vellutino, Scanlon, WISC=R Verbal IQ, WRMT-R Basic Skills & Lyon Performance IQ or Cluster dull Scale IQ Vellutino, Scanlon, WISC-III Verbal IQ, WRMT-R Word Zhang, & Performance IQ or Identification, Word Schatschneider Full Scale IQ Attack Wise, Ring, & Olson WISC-R Full Scale IQ PIAT Word Recogntion untimed; WRAT
Reading Subtest Level 1 (screener); PIAT Word Recognition time-limited; WRMT-R Word Attack; PIAT Reading Comprehension; Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test & revised Rosner Test of Auditory Analysis Skills Note.
To all students scoring below the 26th percentile, we administered WRAT
Reading (Wilkinson, 1993) and the two-subtest Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999).
In these subsets of parents, the mean WRAT
spelling scores for fathers was 82.
In the spring of second grade, the researchers administered two outcome measures: the WRAT
3--Arithmetic (Wilkinson, 1993) and Jordan's Story Problems (Jordan & Hanich, 2000).