Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

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Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

(wĭs-kŏn′sĭn),

WCST

A neuropsychiatric test in which subjects are asked to group a series of symbols by their form and color. The test and its adaptations are used to assess disorders that affect the frontal lobes of the brain, e.g., schizophrenia.
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When the groups were compared according to WCST; the number of completed categories was statistically significantly lower in the OCD-H group, and the numbers of total errors, perseverative errors and non-perseverative errors were significantly higher in this group (respectively; H=36.196 and p<0.001; F=21.63 and p<0.001; F=8.57 and p<0.001; H=24.679 and p<0.001) (Table 2).
In addition, the OCD group exhibited a poorer performance on the WCST. The OCD group executed a greater number of trials, total errors, perseverative responses, non-perseverative errors, a failure to maintain the set and a lower number of completed categories and conceptual responses.
Using the GraphPad Prism to calculate and compare the significant difference between the control group and MDD group's mean age with Mann-Whitney test and Paired t test for HR, HRV, PPG, salivary cortisol levels, and the WCST score.
Tabla 3 Medias (M) y desviacion estandar (DE) para cada factor ejecutivo segun sexo Factor Indicadores Mujeres Varones m de m de I Memoria de --Letras y numeros 19,53 2,46 18,90 2,78 Trabajo --Digitos inversos 8,47 1,45 8,08 1,66 --Digitos directos 11,64 1,85 11,25 2,34 II --Fluidez verbal 57,63 14,14 50,05 12,30 Alternancia --Categorias wcst 5,56 0,66 5,59 0,88 -tmt--parte B 35,60 11,41 41,74 14,22 --Five Point Test 33,03 8,46 29,82 9,54 III Inhibicion --Golpear y tocar 28,55 1,51 28,46 1,43 --Piramide de Mexico 8,41 1,52 8,23 1,82 --Stroop palabra-color 34,92 8,90 32,56 9,23 Fuente: elaboracion propia.
The ODD group exhibited significantly lower scores in both Stroop Color-Word Tests, the backwards digital span of the WISC, and the categories completed and perseverative responses of the WCST compared with the control group.
Concerning the measures of cognitive flexibility assessed with WCST, only the test items perseverative errors, perseverative responses, and categories completed showed significant differences between pre--and posttest.
It is worth highlighting that the study of EF has shown a reduction in tasks such as WCST, verbal fluency, and Stroop in patients with PD before the DBS procedure.
(27) In this context of an obsessively retold story, Sinclair's narrative explicitly picks up on Stephen Knight's interpretation of the murders that attributes them to a triumvirate engaged in an Establishment cover-up: 'Sickert the painter, Netley the coachman, Gull the doctor' (WCST, p54).