However, vancomycin CL and volume of distribution
were lower compared to other ICU populations due to differences in patients' demographic and clinical parameters.
AU[C.sub.last]: area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to time of last measurable concentration; AU[C.sub.inf]: AUC from time zero to time extrapolated to infinite time; AU[C.sub.extrapolated] (%): AUC from time of last measurable concentration extrapolated time to infinite time/AU[C.sub.inf]; [C.sub.max]: measured peak plasma concentration; CL: clearance; [V.sub.ss]: steady-state volume of distribution
; [V.sub.z]: terminal phase volume of distribution
; [t.sub.1/2[beta]]: terminal half-life; [t.sub.1/2,eff]: effective half-life.
Ka indicates absorption rate constant; Vz/F, volume of distribution
of fentanyl; Clparent2met, clearance of fentanyl by metabolism to norfentanyl; V2, volume of distribution
of norfentanyl; Clparent, clearance of fentanyl by all other routes; Clmet, clearance of norfentanyl.
Volume of distribution
(peripheral) decreased from 45 L/70 kg in prematures (27 weeks) to adult values by age 6 months.
The fact that clearance (Cl) is a function, whose value depends upon volume of distribution
, and that this parameter decreased in renal damaged conditions could be the reason for decreased Cl value of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.
From the clinical case study (1), the reader might infer that the changes in clearance and the volume of distribution
are reduced with time, but previous pharmacokinetic investigations have found no indications for such a finding.
The volume of distribution
([V.sub.d]) is a proportionality constant in pharmacokinetic modeling that relates the total amount of a chemical in the body to the concentration in plasma.
In horse mean +- SEM area under curve (AUC) was 25.43+-1.07 mg h mL[?] 1, steady state volume of distribution
(VDss) was 0.267+-0.014 L.kg-1, half-life (t1/2) was 8.17+-0.602 h, mean residence time (MRT) was 1.4+-0.08 and clearance (Cl) was 0.023+-0.0016 L.h- 1.kg[?] 1 These pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to the reported values in horse which were VDSS was 0.27+ .06Lkg[?] 1, MRT 9.6+ 3.26 hours and Cl 0.0347+ 0.0033Lh-1kg [?] 1.The respective reported means PK- values in donkeys were AUC 4.6+ 0.880mg h mL[?] 1,
The volume of distribution
at steady state (Vss), which is a sum of volumes of central and tissue compartments, is greater in febrile rabbits than in normal ones.
A 2-g dose of cefepime given intravenously results in peak serum levels of [approximately equal to] 163 [micro]g/mL with a relatively low volume of distribution
(0.29 L/kg), which would not be expected to eradicate A.
Each drug is listed with its classification, half life, volume of distribution
and normal dosage.
The fixed-effects parameters were clearance (CL), volume of distribution
of the central compartment (V1), central-peripheral clearance (Q2), volume of distribution
of the peripheral compartment (V2), central-peritoneal clearance (Q3) and volume of distribution
of the peritoneal compartment (V3).