The loss of N through N[H.sub.3]-N volatilisation
was evaluated using a semi-open static chamber developed by Nommik (1973), adapted by Lara Cabezas and Trivelin (1990), and calibrated by Lara Cabezas el al.
The newly mineralised N[H.sub.4]-N would also be subject to loss through N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
, especially if subsequent nitrification reactions were inhibited by dry soil or high N[O.sub.3]-N concentrations (Sierra and Marban 2000; Breuer et al.
However, the persistence of excess N[H.sub.4.sup.+] in soil due to reduced activity of Nitrosomonas may lead to increased N losses via N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
(Kim et al.
Incorporated residues can also improve soil structure, and reduce ammonia volatilisation
by influencing the conditions of the underlying soil, and by acting as a medium through which ammonia must pass before being lost to the atmosphere (Aulakh et al.
Gold losses through volatilisation
might explain the absence of optical differences between the slags derived from the oxidised and unoxidised samples of Case Study 1.
Examples of recently reported effects of nitrification and urease inhibitor enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertiliser (EEF) on crop yield, nitrate leaching, ammonia volatilisation
and direct nitrous oxide ([N.sub.2]O) emissions Negative values indicate decreased yield or increased N loss relative to reference conventional sources.
The top ring of the columns was 5 cm high and contained 2 cm of soil and a 3-cm headspace to enable N[H.sub.3] volatilisation
This can be achieved by identifying the temporal changes in loss pathways (volatilisation
, leaching and denitrification) based on climatic conditions and soil background N and C levels.
Therefore, it is appropriate to eliminate leaching during the period immediately after application in order to measure realistic rates of volatilisation
Black AS, Sherlock RR, Smith NP, Cameron KC, Goh KM (1985) Effects of form of nitrogen, season, and urea application rate on ammonia volatilisation
, as determined by SIFT-MS, was linearly related to calculated soil N[H.sub.3] gas concentrations up to 500 kg N/ha on Day 1.
Both broadcast spreading and in-crop application leave the applied N fertiliser at or above the soil surface where it is at risk of volatilisation
(Peoples et al.