Visual fixations (duration per minute for each phase) on the infant's feet (for the three reinforcement groups) and on the visual target (for the visual reinforcement group) were also analyzed to determine their relative contribution in the establishment of the free operant conditioning of kicks.
The evolution of mean times is significant for visual fixations on visual reinforcement, F(3,33) = 9.
As to the evolution of visual fixations for the three experimental groups over the first three phases of the procedure (for which we have full data for the 27 infants), a 3 (conditions) x 2 (real camera versus fictitious camera) x 3 (phases) MANOVA did not reveal any significant effect of these factors.
The majority of work regarding visual fixations
can be summarized as investigations of one of three propositions (Fisher et al.
Studies with older adults show that they have the same patterns of eye fixation as young people (Kemper, Crow & Kemtes, 2004) and that, although visual attention depends on the type of information focused on (Isaacowitz, Wadlinger, Goren & Wilson, 2006), by the age of 70 there is a stability of visual fixation (Kosnik, Fikre & Sekuler, 1986).
Selective Preference in Visual Fixation Away from Negative 1mages in Old Age?
The researchers isolated areas involved in the two musical tasks by removing PET data on blood-flow activity generated during control trials involving visual fixation
on a blank screen, manual responses to dots shown on the screen, and listening to and playing musical scales.
As pioneering work by the Russian psychologist Yarbus (1967) demonstrated over three decades ago, for example, a person pictured in a scene usually will compel the viewer's attention to a much greater degree than will most other objects pictured in that scene, and that is especially so of the image of a human face, which attracts a disproportionately large number of visual fixations
that specifically target the eyes, mouth, nose, and broad contours that describe the boundaries of the face (see Figure 1).
Taylor found that most kindergarteners demonstrated left-to-right directionality patterns in their visual fixations