On an HIV virus, Env protrudes from the viral membrane
in tight clusters of three, called trimers, and these complex structures adopt radically different shapes before and after infecting cells.
Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have engineered an antiviral peptide that exploits the Zika virus at its Achilles heel - the viral membrane
- hence stopping the virus from causing severe infections.
(E) In the acidic endosome, the cleaved HA with a fusogenic domain at the N-terminus of HA2 mediates fusion of the host endosomal membrane with the viral membrane
, allowing entry of viral ribonucleoprotein into the host cell.
Further chapters explore the mechanisms though which two of the major latent viral membrane
proteins activate cellular signaling pathways.
Some of the company's monoclonal antibodies appear to work by recognizing a part of the viral membrane
that is present in the avian flu virus.
The smaller C-terminal portion (HA2, [approximately equal to] 180 aa, excluding transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain) forms a stemlike structure that anchors the globular domain to the cellular or viral membrane
. Sixteen HA subtypes have been identified among influenza A viruses (30); 3 of these (H1, H2, H3) have been associated with classic influenza isolates, and 3 (H5, H7, H9) have been associated with recent sporadic human isolates (1).
Virosomes are reconstituted virus membranes, in this case influenza (flu) containing the viral membrane
The anti-PS antibodies direct our immune responses to the inside-out components of the viral membrane
, or envelope.
To do this, certain peptides normally hidden within the viral membrane
must be lifted above the surface.
A crucial step in this process is when the viral membrane
fuses with the cell membrane.
When the virus first infects the cell, glycoproteins on both the cell surface and on the virus spread apart, as the viral membrane
approaches the cell membrane.
In the case of HIV, antibodies that can block infection target the proteins that stud the surface of the virus, which stick out like spikes from the viral membrane