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Pharmacologic class: Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor
Therapeutic class: Anti-erectile dysfunction agent
Pregnancy risk category B
Inhibits PDE5, enhancing the effects of nitric oxide released during sexual stimulation. This action inactivates cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which then increases cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum. Resulting smooth muscle relaxation promotes increased blood flow and subsequent erection. Also relaxes pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and, to a lesser degree, vasodilation in systemic circulation.
Injection (Revatio): 10 mg in 12.5-ml single-use vial
Tablets: 20 mg (Revatio); 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg (Viagra)
Indications and dosages
➣ Erectile dysfunction
Adults: 50 mg P.O., preferably 1 hour before anticipated sexual activity. Range is 25 to 100 mg taken 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity, not to exceed one dose daily.
➣ Pulmonary hypertension (Revatio only)
Adults: 20 mg P.O. t.i.d. approximately 4 to 6 hours apart, with or without food. Higher doses not recommended. Or, 10 mg by I.V. bolus t.i.d.
• Hepatic or renal impairment (Viagra)
• Concurrent use of hepatic isoenzyme inhibitors (such as cimetidine, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole) (Viagra)
• Elderly patients (Viagra)
• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Concurrent use of nitrates (nitroglycerin, isosorbide mononitrate or dinitrate)
Use cautiously in:
• serious cardiovascular disease (such as history of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, or serious arrhythmia within past 6 months); coronary artery disease (current or previous) with unstable angina; resting blood pressure below 90/50 mm Hg or above 170/110 mm Hg (current or previous); heart failure (current or previous); renal or hepatic impairment (current or previous); bleeding disorder; active peptic ulcer; anatomic penile deformity; retinitis pigmentosa; conditions associated with priapism (sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, leukemia); pulmonary veno-occlusive disease; use not recommended for any of these conditions
• history of uncontrolled hypertension or hypotension
• concurrent use of alpha blockers and antihypertensives (particularly bosentan)
• concurrent use of potent CYP3A inhibitors such as erythromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, or saquinavir (use not recommended)
• patients older than age 65
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children (safety and efficacy not established).
☞ Don't give concurrently with nitrates.
• Administer Viagra 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity.
• If administering Revatio I.V., give by bolus injection only.
CNS: headache, dizziness, anxiety, drowsiness, vertigo, transient global amnesia, insomnia, paresthesia, seizures, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack
CV: hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular collapse, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden death
EENT: transient vision loss, blurred or color-tinged vision, increased light sensitivity, ocular redness, retinal bleeding, vitreous detachment or traction, photophobia, hearing loss, epistaxis, rhinitis, sinusitis nasal congestion
GI: diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastritis
Respiratory: exacerbation of dyspnea
GU: hematuria, urinary tract infection, priapism
Skin: flushing, rash, erythema, pyrexia
Other: hypersensitivity including anaphylactic reactions (rare)
Drug-drug. Alpha blockers, Antihypertensives, nitrates: increased risk of hypotension
Enzyme inducers, rifampin: reduced sildenafil blood level
Hepatic isoenzyme inhibitors (such as cimetidine, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (such as indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir): increased sildenafil blood level and effects
Drug-food. High-fat diet: reduced drug absorption, decreased peak level
• Monitor cardiovascular status carefully.
• Evaluate patient's vision and hearing.
• Assess for drug efficacy.
• Advise patient taking drug for erectile dysfunction to take 30 minutes to 4 hours before sexual activity.
• Tell patient not to exceed prescribed dosage or take more than one dose daily.
☞ Instruct patient to stop sexual activity and contact prescriber immediately if chest pain, dizziness, or nausea occurs.
☞ Teach patient to recognize and immediately report serious cardiac and vision problems and sudden decrease in or loss of hearing.
• Inform patient that drug can cause serious interactions with many common drugs. Instruct him to tell all prescribers he's taking it.
☞ Caution patient never to take drug with nitrates, because of risk of potentially fatal hypotension.
• Instruct patient not to take other PDE5 inhibitors.
• Instruct patient to report priapism (persistent, painful erection) or erections lasting more than 4 hours.
• Tell patient that high-fat diet may interfere with drug efficacy.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and foods mentioned above.
Mechanism Phosphodiesterase inhibition
Indications Erectile dysfunction due to diabetes, hypertension hypercholesterolemia, prostate surgery, spinal cord injuries and psychological factors
Complications Flushed skin, headaches, upset stomach, blue-tinted vision, pregnancy
Adverse effects Stroke, acute MI, priapism
Contraindications Nitrate therapy—e.g., nitroglycerin
Viagra®Sildenafil citrate Urology An agent used to manage erectile dysfunction–male impotence that enhances the effects of endogenous nitric acid, which relaxes penile smooth muscle allowing an inflow of blood, ergo erection; it is ± 70% effective Indications ED due to DM, HTN, hypercholesterolemia, prostate surgery, spinal cord injuries and psychologic factors Complications Flushed skin, headaches, upset stomach, blue-tinted vision, pregnancy Adverse effects Stroke, MI, priapism Contraindications Nitrate therapy–eg, nitroglycerin. See Erectile dysfunction, Impotence.
ViagraA brand name for the oral drug SILDENAFIL CITRATE. The drug, which is made by the firm Pfizer, has been dubbed ‘the Pfizer riser’.
Patient discussion about Viagra
Q. How long does Viagra's effect last? My Husband got Viagra from his Doctor and wants to start taking it. How long does the effect last?
Q. Does Viagra have any side effects? My boyfriend started taking Viagra and now he has headaches. Could this be caused by the Viagra?
Q. What are the risks of taking Viagra? Are there any risks in taking Viagra in the long term?
The FDA informed healthcare professionals in October, 2007 that drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction, including Viagra, may increase risk of sudden hearing loss.