References in periodicals archive ?
Bartholin glands are major vestibular glands located in the constrictor muscle of vestibule and are bilateral (One on each side).
The estrogen hormone stimulate the secretion of the vestibular glands which enrich the glandular fluid with sialic acid, glycidic radicals with both neutral and sulfated mucins.
Surgical intervention and local trauma can also act as etiological factors to glandular proliferation, as it was reported on the minor vestibular glands. Hyperplasia can also result from hormonal milieu alteration.
Inspection was normal and palpation revealed bilateral firm, fix, and nontender masses in vestibular gland region.
Unique structures in females are the greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands), Skene glands, vaginal vestibule, clitoris, and vulva.
Other glandular elements that are present in the vulva include the Skene glands (paraurethral glands), the Bartholin glands (mucus producing vestibular glands), and minor vestibular glands.
Those thought to arise from remnants of urogenital sinus include urogenital sinus cysts, major (Bartholin gland) and minor vestibular gland cysts, paraurethral (Skene gland) cysts, Wolffian-like duct cyst, and cysts of canal of Nuck.
These treatments included the application of topical estrogen cream to the openings of the major and minor vestibular glands. Patients with concomitant lichenoid dermatoses were prescribed topical and/or intravaginal steroids.
A crucial part of the operation was to completely remove all the major and minor vestibular glands, which can harbor adenomas.