The aggrecanase and proteoglycanase clades (ADAMTS1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15, and 20) can cleave hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, a type of extracellular proteins, including aggrecan, versican
, brevican, and neurocan .
The ECM structural substrates, such as versican
, aggrecan, and collagen are degraded by the ADAMTS family members (14).
Properties of representative chemically identified adjuvants Category Adjuvant Receptor Adaptor Lipid MPL TLR4 MyD88/TICAM-1 Lipopeptide TLR2 (+TLR1 or TLR6) MyD88 Oil, squalane Undefined Undefined Protein Flagellin TLR5 MyD88 Cholera toxin B GM1 receptor G proteins Versican
TLR2 MyD88 Nucleic acid Virus dsRNA TLR3, MDA5 TICAM-1 /MAVS Poly I:C TLR3, MDA5 TICAM-1 /MAVS CpG DNA TLR9 MyD88 STING ligand cGAS etc.
Immunohistochemical localization of the proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and versican
and transforming growth factor-beta in human post-burn hypertrophic and mature scars.
MMPs are active at neutral pH and can therefore catalyze the normal turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules such as interstitial and basement membrane collagens, proteoglycans such as aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and versican
, as well as accessory ECM proteins such as fibronectin.
A study showed that another long-chain glycosaminoglycan-hyaluronan could interact with versican
to create matrices, which are required for arterial smooth muscle growth during the vascular disease .
Expression of versican
, Cd133, SCF (stem cell factor), ET-1 (endothelin-1), and bFGF (fibroblast growth factor) was observed during the process of differentiation .
Specific proteins, such as asporin and tenomodulin, were limited to tendons, while versican
, proteoglycan 4, and SOD3 were ligament-specific (Figure 1).
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including the lecticans aggrecan, versican
, neurocan, and brevican, are joined to the hyaluronic acid polymer through "link" proteins including cartilage link protein (Crtl1).
interacts with TLR2, inducing CNS microglia and macrophages to express membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) that activates MMP2 .