Verrucomicrobia


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Verrucomicrobia

A prokaryote name with no current standing in prokaryotic nomenclature.
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Analisis metagenomicos de muestras de suelos contaminados con cianuro y derivados toxicos.--Los analisis metagenomicos de las muestras de suelos contaminados con cianuro mostraron 22 filos bacterianos identificados, predominando los filos Proteobacteria (12.91%), Firmicutes (11.32%), Bacteroidetes (10.16%), Actinobacteria (11.25%), Verrucomicrobia (8.20%) y con abundancias menores se encuentraron Chloroflexi (0.73%), Synergistetes (0.59%), Thermodesulfobacteria (0.49%), Chlorobi (0.33%), Fibrobacteres (0.001%) y Gemmatimonadetes (0.001%); ademas, se reportaron tambien secuencias bacterianas no clasificadas, las cuales representan el 14.48% del total (Tabla 4).
Bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (35%), Actinobacteria (25%), Acidobacteria (17%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11%) in the 0-10 cm soil layer, and Acidobacteria (21%), unassigned taxa (21%), Proteobacteria (19%), Actinobacteria (18%) and Verrucomicrobia (12%) in the 25-40 cm layer.
These microbiota are composed of representatives of many phyla, such as Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Fusobacteria, Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes (Green & Barnes, 2010; Fernandez-Piquer et al., 2012), as well as those of a wide diversity of bacterial genera, including Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Micrococcus, and Bacillus (King et al., 2012; Wegner et al., 2013; Romalde et al., 2014; Trabal-Fernandez et al., 2014).
As a result of these studies, six major bacterial classifications, namely, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, have been identified in the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans (10).
A previous study on foregut fermenters revealed that equine fecal bacterial sequences represented 16 phyla and the largest number of reads belonged to Firmicutes (43.7% of total bacterial sequences), Verrucomicrobia (4.1%), Proteobacteria (3.8%), and Bacteroidetes (3.7%) (Shepherd et al., 2012).
Other dominant phyla identified in the gut of oysters, mussels, and clams include Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria, Firmicutes, Chlamydiae, Fusobacteria, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, Plantomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia (Fernandez-Piquer et al.
Of interest, there were two phyla, Chloroflexi and Verrucomicrobia, in which OTUs were not related to other factors (presence of an indoor dog, home condition, or winter), but were significantly associated with current farming (Table 3).
In animal and human studies that looked at the correlation between microbiome and obesity, it was found that obese individuals had a low microbial diversity, a high percentage of Firmicute and Actinobacteria, and a low percentage of Bacteriodes, Verrucomicrobia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
This pattern was similar for CE6 and PL1, CE6 (21 ORFs), which were predicted to be produced in Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, while PL1 (45 ORFs) could be linked to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes.
A total of 12 phyla (11 bacterial phyla and 1 archaeal phylum) were identified among the 18 samples (Figure 3), including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Thaumarchaeota (archaea), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Chlorobi.
Tenericutes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla were found in relatively low proportions less than 0.5%.
Verrucomicrobia was found increased in [Lep.sup.ob/ob] mice compared to normal but did not achieve statistically significant differences.