(eye-lo-prost) ,


(trade name)


Therapeutic: vasodilators
Pharmacologic: prostacyclins
Pregnancy Category: C


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group 1).


Dilates pulmonary and arterial vasculature.

Therapeutic effects

Improved exercise capacity.


Absorption: Unknown.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Any absorbed iloprost is metabolized.
Half-life: 20–30 min (plasma).

Time/action profile (improved exercise capacity)

Inhaln unknownunknownup to 2 hr


Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Systolic BP <85 mm Hg; Lactation: Lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Concurrent use of drugs or coexisting medical conditions that may ↑ risk of syncope; COPD, asthma, or acute pulmonary infection (may ↑ risk of bronchospasm); Hepatic impairment (may need to ↑ dosing interval); Pediatric: Safety not established; Obstetric: Use only if maternal benefit outweighs fetal risk.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • headache
  • insomnia

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • epistaxis


  • cough (most frequent)
  • bronchospasm
  • dyspnea
  • hemoptysis
  • wheezing


  • HF (life-threatening)
  • vasodilation (most frequent)
  • chest pain
  • hypotension
  • peripheral edema
  • supraventricular tachycardia


  • diarrhea
  • gingival bleeding
  • nausea
  • vomiting


  • renal failure


  • facial flushing


  • back pain
  • jaw-muscle spasm
  • muscle cramps


Drug-Drug interaction

↑ risk of hypotension with other vasodilators or diuretics.Risk of bleeding may be ↑ by anticoagulants.


Inhalation (Adults) 2.5 mcg initially, then 5 mcg/dose 6–9 times daily; not more than every 2 hr.

Hepatic Impairment

Inhalation (Adults) Child Pugh Class B or C—Consider ↑ dosing interval to every 3–4 hr.


Solution for inhalation: 10 mcg/mL ampules, 20 mcg/mL ampules

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess respiratory status (exercise intolerance, symptoms, deterioration) prior to and periodically during therapy.
  • Monitor vital signs prior to and throughout therapy. Do not administer if BP <85 mm Hg.
  • Assess for signs of pulmonary edema (dyspnea, jugular venous distension). If signs occur, discontinue iloprost immediately; may be a sign of pulmonary venous hypertension.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Activity intolerance (Indications)
Ineffective breathing pattern (Indications)


  • Avoid iloprost contact with skin or eyes, or oral ingestion.
  • Inhalation: Prepare medication by one ampule of iloprost into Prodose ADD System or I-neb ADD system medication chamber immediately before use. Do not mix with other medications. Administer 6–9 times/day during waking hours, according to patient's needs and tolerability. Discard solution remaining in chamber after inhalation. Follow manufacturer's instructions for cleaning components after administration of each dose.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient in use of iloprost and Prodose ADD System or I-neb ADD system, frequency, ampule dispensing, and cleaning of equipment. See manufacturer's instructions. Advise patient that inhalation intervals should not be less than 2 hr, but acute benefits of medication may not last 2 hr.
  • May cause dizziness and fainting due to hypotension. Caution patient to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Improved exercise tolerance, decrease in symptoms of pulmonary edema, and lack of deterioration in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners


a brand name for ILOPROST TROMETAMOL.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
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In coming two to four years the exclusivity of key brands such as Tracleer, Remodulin, Adcirca, Ventavis, Tyvaso, and Letairis will be lost.
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Drug administration and dosages may include Flolan or epoprostenol, via continuous IV infusion via central venous catheter using an ambulatory infusion pump 1 to 20 ng/kg/min, treprostinil (Remodulin), continuous subcutaneous infusion 0.625 to 1.25 ng/kg/min, and iloprost (Ventavis) via inhalation, nebulizer (using one of two approved drug delivery devices) 2.5 to 5 meg, 6-9 times/day.
The FDA also approved three more drugs, Remodulin, Ventavis, and Revatio in 2002, 2004 and 2005 respectively for the treatment of PAH.
Ventavis, which was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization Group I), or PAH, in patients with New York Heart Association Class III or IV symptoms.