Near the border, a vascular bundle
occurred, with a small number of conductive elements and presence of fibers (Figures 2H and 2L).
In Minasia, the chlorophyll parenchyma is delimited by the presence of the colorless parenchyma in the middle of mesophyll, which interconnects the vascular bundles
, and by the bundle sheath extensions, and it is generally restricted to sectors under the stomata (Figs.
The anatomical characteristics, such as vascular bundle
frequency (VBF), fiber length (FL), and parenchyma lumen diameters (PLD) of internodes and nodes, were determined using the methods reported in our previous research (Huang et al.
, Parenchyma and Xylem/ Phloem Relation
This scale is then one of few armoured scale species that are capable of piercing lignified plant cells walls like fibers and the xylem vessels in vascular bundles
. Leaf vascular bundle
penetration by SB has been previously reported in only 2 species of scales (Heriot 1934; Washington & Walker 1990).
Wild rice stems also have lignified vascular bundle
cells, again with some evidence of suberin, but they are only lignified in Cynodon dactylon, Eremochloa ophiuroides, Paspalum distichum, and Hemarthria altissima.
There is no information available on how the vascular bundles
grow in grape berries  and how this growth is related to the three stages of berry growth.
These characteristics include reduced epicuticular wax deposits, a relatively low thickness of the epidermis and cuticle, lower phloem development, abundant intercellular spaces, rudimentary vascular bundles
and deficient stomatal mechanisms (ROMANO; MARTINS-LOUCAO, 2003).
'We've imaged cross-sections of bamboo to identify structural components, such as the stiff vascular bundles
. We've used transmission electron microscopy to identify cellular-level features and have measured the mechanical properties of bamboo through using micro-bend test using specimens from different positions in the bamboo stem.
These include: non-vascular fibrous strands located under the adaxial hypodermis and in the spongy parenchyma between the major vascular bundles
, variable in shape and in number of fibers; round stegmata surrounding fiber strands; cellulose non-vascular fiber very elongated, acute at the ends, with thick walls; lignified vascular fibers short, septate, spindle-shaped and acute, located at the ends of the major and minor vascular bundles
Collateral vascular bundles
are surrounded by a parenchyma sheath, unrelated to sclerenchyma (Fig.
Results: The mistletoe lectins I--III in internodes were located mainly in cells of the parenchyma of the cortex, in sclerenchyma tissue next to the vascular bundles
and in the companion cells of the phloem.