esophageal varices

(redirected from Variceal bleed)

varix

 [vār´iks] (L.)
an enlarged, tortuous vein, artery, or lymphatic vessel.
aneurysmal varix a markedly dilated tortuous vessel; sometimes used to denote a form of arteriovenous aneurysm in which the blood flows directly into a neighboring vein without the intervention of a connecting sac.
arterial varix a racemose aneurysm or varicose artery.
esophageal varices varicosities of branches of the azygous vein which anastomose with tributaries of the portal vein in the lower esophagus; due to portal hypertension in cirrhosis of the liver.
lymph varix (varix lympha´ticus) a soft, lobulated swelling of a lymph node due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels.

e·soph·a·ge·al var·i·ces

longitudinal venous varices at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; they are superficial and liable to ulceration and massive bleeding.

esophageal varices

a complex of longitudinal tortuous veins at the lower end of the esophagus, enlarged and swollen as the result of portal hypertension. These vessels are especially susceptible to hemorrhage. Conditions that can cause portal hypertension include cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.
enlarge picture
Esophageal varices: endoscopic view

esophageal varices

The presence of varices under the esophageal mucosa, which most commonly occurs in a background of advanced liver disease Etiology Portal HTN, schistosomiasis Management Acute hemorrhage of EVs is treated by balloon compression; rebleeding is common, and is preemptively managed with endoscopic sclerotherapy, which in turn is often complicated by rebleeding, stenosis, & esophageal ulceration; some data suggest that combined modality therapy with a β-blocking agent–nadolol, propranolol and an anti-hypertensive–isosorbide mononitrate is better than endoscopic sclerotherapy in treating EVs Prognosis Good if unrelated to cirrhosis. See Endoscopic sclerotherapy, Nadolol with isosorbide mononitrate.

e·soph·a·ge·al va·ri·ces

(ĕ-sof'ă-jē'ăl var'i-sēz)
Longitudinal venous varices at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; they are superficial and liable to ulceration and massive bleeding.
Synonym(s): oesophageal varices.

e·soph·a·ge·al va·ri·ces

(ĕ-sof'ă-jē'ăl var'i-sēz)
Longitudinal venous varices at lower end of esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; superficial and liable to ulceration and massive bleeding.

esophageal

of or pertaining to the esophagus.

esophageal achalasia
esophageal anomalies
very rare; include atresia, duplication, segmental aplasia, esophagorespiratory fistulae, diverticula, epithelial inclusion cysts.
esophageal atresia
congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus, commonly accompanied by tracheoesophageal fistula, and characterized by accumulations of mucus in the nasopharynx, gagging, vomiting when fed, cyanosis and dyspnea. Treatment is by surgical repair by esophageal anastomosis and division of the fistula.
esophageal distention
may result from acute or chronic obstruction of the esophagus, or from defective innervation. See also megaesophagus.
esophageal duplication
may be tubular and communicate with the effective esophagus, or cystic appearing as a cystic mass close to the functioning esophagus.
esophageal ectasia
esophageal enlargement
clinically visible enlargement as seen in esophageal diverticulum, stenosis, paralysis, cardial obstruction.
esophageal fibrosis
a cause of acquired megaesophagus; usually caused by trauma or spontaneous ulceration.
esophageal groove
see reticular groove.
esophageal groove lesion
includes granuloma, papilloma, foreign body lodgment; cause of obstructive bloat.
esophageal hyperkeratosis
hyperkeratotic thickening of the esophageal mucosa due usually to hypovitaminosis A or chlorinated naphthalene poisoning.
esophageal inflammation
esophageal motility disorders
esophageal neoplasm
very rare except for papilloma and fibropapilloma; causes chronic esophageal obstruction.
esophageal obstruction
acute obstruction is manifested by inability to swallow, regurgitation of saliva, food and water through the nose and much discomfort expressed by retching movements and pawing at the throat. Ruminants develop ruminal tympany. Chronic obstruction shows the same syndrome but with a gradual development and a tendency to develop aspiration pneumonia.
Enlarge picture
Palpating an esophageal obstruction in a cow. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
esophageal osteosarcoma
occurs in dogs in association with the parasite Spirocerca lupi.
esophageal papilloma
a cause of obstructive bloat.
esophageal paralysis
causes esophageal obstruction.
esophageal patching
see patch graft.
esophageal perforation
causes local cellulitis and compression-obstruction of esophagus.
esophageal pulsion diverticulum
a diverticulum that pushes outwards causing pressure on surrounding organs and tissues.
esophageal segmental aplasia
causes esophageal obstruction in neonates.
esophageal stenosis, esophageal stricture
causes esophageal obstruction; may be partial, permitting passage of liquids.
esophageal tube
see nasogastric tube.
esophageal ulcer
usually associated with pressure necrosis due to prolonged obstruction and injury by a solid foreign body or, rarely equine dysautonomia or Gasterophilus spp. infestation.
esophageal varices
distended veins at the gastric cardia causing dysphagia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Findings were that of grade 1 oesophageal varices with no features of variceal bleed.
Muzaffar Latif Gul delivered lecture on Acute Variceal Bleed and said that if the disease is being diagnosed at the early stages then there would be chances of recovery increases.
Of the 179 patients, 12 (7%) had a significant variceal bleed, and only 50% of these patients had received a screening endoscopy within 6 months of their index date.
Overall, 12 patients (7%) of the 179 had a significant variceal bleed, and only 50% of these patients had received a screening endoscopy within 6 months of their index date.
Despite the general use of endoscopic therapy, there are few robust and validated data on the efficacy of endoscopic control of the index variceal bleed, the frequency of early rebleeding, and survival following the initial bleed in alcoholic cirrhotic patients.
4) This study demonstrated that endoscopic therapy was effective in controlling the initial acute variceal bleed and that ultimate survival was influenced by rebleeding and underlying liver reserve.
By 24 months, a significantly higher percentage of the patients on carvedilol were free from a first variceal bleed (87% vs.
Cirrhosis is considered decompensated once patients have a variceal bleed, jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, or hepatocellular carcinoma.
The drugs have been shown to reduce the risk of a first variceal bleed by half and to reduce mortality by up to 45%, compared with placebo.
Of 174 patients who were randomized to receive propranolol plus placebo in a double-blind trial, 15 had a first variceal bleed during an average follow-up of 16 months.
None of the treatments differed significantly in the risk of a first variceal bleed when all patients were included in the analysis (Gastroenterology 123[3]:735-44, 2002).
However, when patients who withdrew or changed study treatments were excluded from the analysis, the band ligation group showed a significantly lower risk for a first variceal bleed than did the isosorbide 5-mononitrate group.