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The noncovalent functionalization of CNT with ionic liquids is a consequence of the cation-[pi] interactions between ionic liquid and the CNT surface and also due to van der Waals interactions [19].
Physical adsorption via hydrogen bond or van der Waals interaction does not cause any considerable modification in CNTs [65, 66].
The RDG was used to analyse the interactions, which can be divided into medium- and longrange interactions based on the distance or into hydrogen bonding and electrostatic and van der Waals interactions according to the type of bond.
Furthermore, unlike the Coulombic interactions, the magnitudes of binding do not decrease in magnitude with the binding of CPP because the strength of hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions remains relatively constant.
Additionally, it was observed that the Met374 and Asp309 were crucial in forming the hydrogen bond interactions and van der Waals interactions, respectively, with all the ligands and Ile133 was noticed to be involved with the alkyl/[pi]-alkyl as was seen in the reference compounds.
Based on (1)~(13), the van der Waals interaction energies, electrical interaction energies, and polar interfacial interaction energies between magnesite, dolomite, serpentine, and quartz particles in the absence and presence of DDA (8.6 x [10.sup.-4] M) at pH 9.5 are calculated and illustrated in Figures 14-18.
In this context, the van der Waals interactions had to be also analyzed.
The results confirmed that van der Waals interaction between the [O.sub.1]-[O.sub.2] atoms.
The van der Waals interactions between a carbon atom and a [alpha]-Al[O.sub.2] unit are given, as well as between a pair of carbon atoms.
Ionic liquids are salts with melting points below 100 degrees Celsius, and represent a new class of non-molecular liquid materials with unique property profiles due to a complex interplay of Coulombic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Here chemists from universities and companies around the world show how to exploit some of these qualities to perform chemical reactions that are less damaging to the environment than conventional processes.
In some cases, if solvents contain alkyl chains, aromatic rings, or hydrogen bonding donor or acceptors, the solvent molecules can be coadsorbed on the surface by van der Waals interactions with the substrate, hydrogen bond or van der Waals interactions with the adsorbates, to form 2D nanostructure [9, 17, 18].