VRSA


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Related to VRSA: vancomycin, Mrsa

VRSA

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cf Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

Staphylococcus

(staf?i-lo-kok'us) [Gr. staphyle, a bunch of grapes + coccus]
A genus of micrococci belonging to the family Staphylococcaceae, order Bacillales. They are gram-positive and when cultured on agar produce white, yellow, or orange colonies. Some species are pathogenic, causing suppurative conditions and elaborating exotoxins destructive to tissues. Some produce enterotoxins and are the cause of a common type of food poisoning.

Staphylococcus aureus

A species that is coagulase positive, often part of resident flora of the skin and the nasal and oral cavities. These bacteria may cause suppurative conditions such as boils, carbuncles, and abscesses, as well as hospital-acquired infections, foreign body (prosthetic) infections, and life-threatening pneumonia or sepsis. Various strains of this species produce toxins, including those that cause food poisoning, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, and toxic shock syndrome. Some strains also produce hemolysins and staphylokinase.

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abbreviation: MRSA
A strain of S. aureus resistant to methicillin. MRSA is resistant to all penicillins. Patients with MRSA infections should be isolated; appropriate mask-gown-glove precautions must be used, depending on the site of the infection. MRSA is an important cause of health care associated infections. Handwashing is essential in caring for patients who harbor this organism. See: isolation; resistance, antibiotic

MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics and is usually acquired in hospitals or nursing homes, spread from patient to patient by contaminated hands, clothing, and equipment. Infection with MRSA can range from pneumonia to flesh-eating diseases. About 0.5% of people in the U.S. have MRSA bacteria on their skin or in their noses and, although not infected, can still spread the bacteria to those at risk. The CDC estimates that 90,000 people die annually in the U.S. from hospital-acquired infections; about 17,000 of these deaths are due to MRSA. Agencies can now reduce and perhaps stop the spread of MRSA infection by following the guidelines of a pilot program of the Pittsburgh, PA, Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

Patient care

The Pittsburgh guidelines require that all patients have their noses swabbed for MRSA on admission and discharge. Those with MRSA are isolated from other patients and are cared for in protective isolation. Noninvasive equipment is disinfected after each use with these patients, and strict hand hygiene policies are applied. As a result, there was a drop of more than 70% of MRSA cases in surgical care units. The VA, because of the Pittsburgh results, plans to expand the program to more than 150+ VA hospitals nationwide. The CDC suggests screening high-risk patients (those with weak immune systems, intensive care patients, and patients in nursing homes), rather than recommending universal screening. However, Denmark, Finland, and the Netherlands have essentially eradicated MRSA by using universal screening methods. In addition to screening everyone, agencies may provide MRSA carriers with special soap and antibiotic nasal creams. Additionally, a gene-based MRSA test provides results in hours as opposed to days.

vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abbreviation: VRSA
A strain of S. aureus resistant to vancomycin that may become a serious nosocomial pathogen. Strains with intermediate resistance to vancomycin have caused life-threatening infections.

Staphylococcus capitis

A coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species that has been isolated from infections in premature neonates and patients with endocarditis.

Staphylococcus caprae

A coagulase-negative, DNAse-positive Staphylococcus species first identified in goats. It can infect humans, e.g., in prosthetic joints and injured bones.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

A coagulase-negative species that is part of the normal flora of the skin. It may colonize, form biofilms on, and infect prosthetic devices and indwelling catheters.

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

A coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species that primarily infects premature neonates and patients being treated for cancer or other immune-suppressing conditions. The species can also cause meningitis; infections of the skin, soft tissue, or prosthetic joints; or bacteremia. It is frequently resistant to multiple common antibiotics.

Staphylococcus hominis

A coagulase-negative species frequently recovered from skin. It is not consistently pathogenic for humans.

Staphylococcus lugdunensis

An aggressive coagulase-negative Staphyloccus species. It causes infections of soft tissues, the bloodstream, and prostheses.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

A species that is the second most common cause of urinary tract infection in young, sexually active females. It is a rare cause of pneumonia.

vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abbreviation: VRSA
A strain of S. aureus resistant to vancomycin that may become a serious nosocomial pathogen. Strains with intermediate resistance to vancomycin have caused life-threatening infections.
See also: Staphylococcus

VISA

, VRSA (vē′să)
Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
References in periodicals archive ?
One control strain and the two VRSA strains from two setups were subjected to PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing.
Previously, all VRSA isolates were considered to be susceptible to newer antimicrobial agents such as linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin.
Table 1: Antibacterial activity of cryptotanshinone and anitibiotics in isolated MRSA, VRSA, MSSA, and some of reference bacteria.
On December 13, 2007, VRSA, VRE, and Citrobacter youngae were cultured from a left plantar foot wound of a 54-year-old patient (patient 2) who had inadequately controlled insulin-dependent diabetes.
VRSA was first isolated in September 2002 from a foot ulcer of a diabetic patient who required frequent dialysis for failing kidneys.
In the 1990s, MRSA, VRSA, and VRE were the major superbugs which required clinical attention and pharmacological ingenuity.
Clinical microbiology laboratories must ensure that they are using testing methods that will detect VRSA. The most accurate method is a nonautomated minimum inhibitory concentration method in which organisms are incubated for 24 hours before results are read.
VRSA was not found in any of the patient's close contacts, but one was found to carry a methicillin-resistant strain of S.
# The UK has already seen several cases of GISA, or glycopeptide intermediate staphylococcus Aureus, a kind of ``halfway house'' between MRSA and VRSA, which has developed a resistance to antibiotics of the vancomycin family.
aureus or VRSA; aggressive infection control measures are needed to reduce this risk.
Ramoplanin has potent in vitro bactericidal activity targeted against Gram-positive bacteria, including many antibiotic resistant strains such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA).
The horrific infection, called VRSA, is resistant to last-resort drugs already being used to treat the MRSA superbug.