There are number of commercial surgical simulators, including RoSS3 and Voxel-Man tempo,4 that are deployed in surgical training institutes.
Objective assessment of learning curves for the Voxel-Man TempoSurg temporal bone surgery computer simulator," J Laryngol Otol.
The Voxel-Man TempoSurg simulator was the first commercially available temporal bone simulator and has already been evaluated a number of times in the literature [8-14].
All testing was performed on a Voxel-Man TempoSurg simulator (Voxel-Man, Hamburg, Germany) at the Nancy School of Surgery, France.
The outcome measures for each participant in each dissection task were global score, bone volume removed, time taken, efficiency (i.e., bone volume removed per second), and number of structure injuries obtained from the Voxel-Man simulator.
In addition, 93.7% of the experienced surgeons said they would recommend the Voxel-Man simulator for anatomy learning (score of at least 4 out of 5).
In this study, we sought to assess whether the Voxel-Man simulator can distinguish between experienced and novice surgeons.
Most of the experienced surgeons (93.7%) said they would recommend the Voxel-Man simulator for teaching ear anatomy and thought that this simulator could be integrated into surgical training courses.
The Voxel-Man TempoSurg Virtual Reality simulator constitutes an interesting complementary tool to traditional teaching methods for training in otologic surgery.
Alderson, "Evaluating the effectiveness of the Voxel-Man tempoSurg virtual reality simulator in facilitating learning mastoid surgery," The Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol.