Previous studies in our laboratory have identified catalposide, verproside, luteolin amphicoside, and protocatechuic acid as the primary compounds in VCAF [11, 13] (Figure 7).
In conclusion, VCAF has been shown to be a promising potential medicinal plant extract owing to a biomass rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activity.
Caption: Figure 1: Effects of the antioxidant activity of the VCAF: (a) DPPH radical, (b) superoxide anion radical, and (c) hydroxyl radical.
Caption: Figure 2: Cytotoxicity and the cytoprotective effects of VCAF. The viability of HL-7702 cells and HepG2 cells was performed by a CCK-8 assay.
Caption: Figure 3: The effects of VCAF on oxidative stress injury.
Caption: Figure 4: The protective effects of VCAF on apoptosis.
Caption: Figure 5: The effects of VCAF on AST, ALT, and AChE activities.
Caption: Figure 6: The effects of VCAF on antioxidase activities.
Caption: Figure 7: UPLC chromatograms of VCAF detected at 260 nm.