usnic acid

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usnic acid

(ŭs′nĭk)
n.
An antibacterial substance, C18H16O7, obtained from lichens of several genera, including Usnea.
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Of the 17 known secondary metabolites which have shown antidiabetic activity, namely, zeorin, methylorsellinate, methyl-[beta]-orcinol carboxylate, methyl haematommate, orsellinic acid, lecanoric acid, atranorin, sekikaic acid, salazinic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, lobaric acid, divaricatic acid, gyrophoric acid, ethyl haematomate, ethyl orsellinate, Brialmontin 1 (Table 1), 13 are already reported for their antioxidant potentials (Table 2).
To evaluate the toxicity of naturally occurring substances, such as usnic acid, preclinical trials in order to evaluate the potential of the substance to cause adverse effects on exposed organisms are included, in particular the effects of exposure during pregnancy which is one of the basic requirements for the use of bioactive molecules [19, 20].
From a series of metabolites isolated from various lichen thalli, the following compounds showed a significant increase in neurite outgrowth in Neuro2A cells, compared to that in the vehicle (1% DMSO)-treated group (75.62 [+ or -] 5.75 [micro]m), upon treatment with 5 [micro]M: atranorin (131.73 [+ or -] 6.56 [micro]m), physodic acid (137.36 [+ or -] 6.67 [micro]m) and usnic acid (129.32 [+ or -] 6.95 [micro]m).
"If Cisco launches Nexus 3500 in the next few months and combines usNIC in the launch it will finally be the first Ethernet solution that can compete against (Infiniband)…(and) shows Cisco intent to kill Infiniband with Ethernet."
Antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of usnic acid known as secondary metabolite have been reviewed.
Usnic acid was initially used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (Plichet, 1955), and there are data regarding its biological activities as an antibiotic (Cocchietto et al., 2002), antiproliferative (Carderelli et al., 1997), analgesic and antipyretic (Okuyama et al., 1995), antiinflammatory (Vijayakumar et al., 2000), antiviral (Campanella et al., 2002; Scirpa et al., 1999), antifungal (Halama and Haluwin, 2004), against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (Carvalho et al., 2005) and as an immunologic modulator (Santos et al., 2004).
According to their chemical structure, most lichen substances are phenolic compounds, dibenzofuranes, Usnic acids, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinines and pulvunic acid derivatives [11].
Haematomma nothofagi is easily confused with the New Zealand endemic species Haematomma hilare Zahlbr., but the latter contains methyplacodiolic and usnic acids, and ascospores with 7-10 septa (Staiger & Kalb, 1995).
Usnic acid is effective against streptococcus, staphylococcus, and bacteria that causes pneumonia.
Some of the supplements in question include kava, usnic acid and bitter orange (citrus aurantium).
He indicated that some of the supplements that the agency will closely examine include bitter orange, aristolochic acid and usnic acid, all three of which, he asserted, can cause kidney damage and liver toxicity.
Three weeks into taking only half the recommended (dose, Rosenthal slipped into a coma, her liver apparently destroyed by usnic acid, an ingredient in the supplement.