It was working well till one week back when parents noted dribbling of urine which was actually cerebrospinal fluid draining from the shunt followed by extrusion of a tube from the urethal
meatus which was tip of the VP shunt.
caruncle: a herald lesion for distal urethral stenosis?," Journal of the National Medical Association, vol.
One urine sample was obtained before a liver transplantation, and two urine samples were obtained by means of a urethal
catheter during transplantation between 40 and 60 min and between 60 and 240 min after reperfusion of the graft.
catheterization is often perceived by the child and parents as an invasive and painful procedure.