respiratory tract(redirected from Upper respiratory)
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a longitudinal assemblage of tissues or organs, especially a number of anatomic structures arranged in series and serving a common function, such as the gastrointestinal or urinary tract; also used in reference to a bundle (or fasciculus) of nerve fibers having a common origin, function, and termination within the central nervous system.
alimentary tract alimentary canal.
biliary tract the organs, ducts, and other structures that participate in secretion (the liver), storage (the gallbladder), and delivery (hepatic and bile ducts) of bile into the duodenum. See illustration.
corticospinal t's two groups of nerve fibers (the anterior and lateral corticospinal tracts) that originate in the cerebral cortex and run through the spinal cord.
digestive tract alimentary canal.
dorsolateral tract a group of nerve fibers in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord dorsal to the posterior column.
extrapyramidal tract extrapyramidal system.
gastrointestinal tract the stomach and intestine in continuity; see also digestive system.
iliotibial tract a thickened longitudinal band of fascia lata extending from the tensor muscle downward to the lateral condyle of the tibia.
intestinal tract see intestinal tract.
optic tract the nerve tract proceeding backward from the optic chiasm, around the cerebral peduncle, and dividing into a lateral and medial root, which end in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body, respectively.
pyramidal t's collections of motor nerve fibers arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells in the anterior horns.
respiratory tract respiratory system.
urinary tract the organs and passageways concerned in the production and excretion of urine from the kidneys to the urinary meatus; see also urinary system.
uveal tract the vascular tunic of the eye, comprising the choroid, ciliary body, and iris.
the air passages from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli, through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
the complex of organs and structures that performs the pulmonary ventilation of the body and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between ambient air and blood circulating through the lungs. It also warms the air passing into the body and assists in the speech function by providing air for the larynx and the vocal cords. Every 24 hours about 500 cubic feet of air (150 m3) passes through the respiratory tract of the average adult, who breathes in and out between 12 and 18 times a minute. The respiratory tract is divided into the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract. Also called respiratory system. See also the Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, pp. A32-A34.
res·pi·ra·to·ry tract(res'pir-ă-tōr-ē trakt)
The air passages from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli, through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
The air passages from the nose to the air sacs of the lungs, including the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
res·pi·ra·to·ry tract(res'pir-ă-tōr-ē trakt)
The air passages from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli.
n the complex of organs and structures performing the pulmonary ventilation of the body and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the ambient air and the blood circulating through the lungs. It includes all the structures from the external nares to the alveoli of the lungs.
pertaining to respiration. See also pulmonary.
acute respiratory disease of turkeys
see turkey coryza.
acute respiratory distress syndrome
sudden complete cessation of respiratory movement.
respiratory burst of neutrophils
the series of biochemical reactions that take place within a neutrophil when a particle is phagocytosed. Important in the host defense mechanisms.
see respiratory centers.
chronic respiratory disease
see chronic respiratory disease.
clearance of inhaled particles from the respiratory system by absorption of finally solubilized material through the respiratory epithelium, passage through the alveolar epithelium at special sites near the alveolar ducts, or to the exterior by a flow of alveolar fluid to the bronchi, a moving sheet of mucus into the bronchioles, up the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea with the assistance of repiratory cilia to the pharynx.
quantitative relationship between oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer. Traditionally presented as a P/O ratio indicating the number of ATP molecules synthesized per atom of oxygen consumed.
respiratory control ratio
ratio of oxygen uptake in the presence of ADP to that in the absence of ADP. Used as an index of the functional integrity of prepared mitochondria since it is above 10 in good preparation and unity in aged or damaged mitochondria.
the cycle of inspiration, expiration, pause of the normal resting cycle depends on sensors in the respiratory system which provide stimuli to initiate the next part of the cycle.
respiratory dead space
see dead space (2).
the rate and/or depth of respiration are insufficient to maintain adequate gas exchange in the lungs; a subjective judgment tending to be superseded, at least during anesthesia, by instrumentation. See respiration monitors.
amplitude of each respiratory movement.
respiratory disease pattern
may be aerogenous when the pathogen is inhaled or hematogenous when the pathogen is delivered to the lungs in the blood supply.
respiratory distress syndrome of newborn (RDS)
see hyaline membrane disease.
respiratory exchange ratio
the carbon dioxide output divided by the oxygen uptake; see also respiratory quotient (below).
a life-threatening condition in which respiratory function is inadequate to maintain the body's need for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal while at rest; called also acute ventilatory failure. The type of failure varies with the CO2 content of the blood and may be asphyxial, when there is gasping, dyspneic when there is dyspnea, paralytic when the respiratory movements gradually fade away, tachypneic when the movements are fast and shallow.
grunting at the peak of each inspiration, or on percussion of the chest wall; indicates pain in the pleura.
a condition in which respiratory function is inadequate to meet the body's needs when increased physical activity places extra demands on it. Insufficiency occurs as a result of progressive degenerative changes in the alveolar structure and the capillary tissues in the pulmonary bed.
includes sneezing, snorting, stridor, stertor (snoring), wheezing, roaring, grunting.
see respiratory failure (above).
respiratory quotient (RQ)
the ratio of the volume of expired carbon dioxide to the volume of oxygen absorbed by the lungs per unit of time. Called also respiratory exchange ratio (above).
the number of respirations per minute. Normal rates per minute are: horses 8 to 10; cattle 10 to 30; sheep and pigs 10 to 20; goats 25 to 35; dogs 10 to 30; cats 20 to 30.
normally consists of three phase cycles of inspiration, expiration, pause; prolongation of inspiration suggests obstruction of the upper respiratory tract, prolongation of expiration, or a double respiratory effort suggests loss of recoil elasticity of the lungs. See also biot's respirations, cheyne-stokes respiration.
includes samples collected by nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, percutaneous tracheobronchial lavage and fiberoptic endoscopic sampling. Assessment is by laboratory examination for cellular content, bacteria, viruses, helminth parasites, fungi.
the group of specialized organs whose specific function is to provide for the transfer of oxygen from the air to the blood and of waste carbon dioxide from the blood to the air. These functions are performed by the tubular and cavernous organs which allow atmospheric air to reach the membranes across which gases are exchanged with the blood. The system includes the organs of the respiratory tract (below) plus the respiratory centers in the medulla. The supportive roles of the nervous system, the muscular, cardiovascular and hemopoietic systems are also essential.
the organs of the tract include the upper respiratory tract of the nasal cavities, the pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi, and the lower respiratory tract comprising the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs.
see Table 8.2.